Croatian glagolitic heritage related to Lika, Krbava, Gatska, Modruš and Senj© Written by Darko Žubrinić, 2001 [in Croatian]
he knew all too well
from which sides the winds blow,
Church of Croatian Martyrs in Udbina
t is not excluded that the beginnings of the Croatian state are related precisely to the Lika - Krbava region. The Croatian Prince Borna from the beginning of 9th century was known first as the Dux Guduscanorum, i.e. the Prince of Gachans (from the Gatska valley), before he traversed the mountain of Velebit. There exist the remains of Croatian interlace from 10th century found near the town of Smiljan. The most important monument of early Croatian literacy, dating from the end of 11th century, is the Baška tablet, where in its fifth line the names of joupan (prefect) Desimir from Krbava and Martin (Mratin) from Lika are mentioned as witnesses.
An impressive book about Lika and Plitvice lakes is [Hirc], published already in 1898, with drawings by a Czech painter Vaclav Anderle. However, it is little known that this area, full of natural beauties, had also interesting and rich history and culture. Sufflay].
esides parishes in Lika and Krbava there existed also parishes of Brinje, Buzani, Hotuca, Oderjan, Una, Lapac, Nebljus and Gatska (Gat). The Buzani parish is mentioned for the first time in 1071, during the reign of Croatian King Kresimir IV (who founded the city of Šibenik). The name of Bužani reminds us to the name of Duchess Buga, who together with her sister Tuga and five brothers brought White Croats to their new homeland. We know this from writings of Constantine Porphyrogenetus, a Byzantine emperor from 10th century.
The tribes of Bužani existed in 6th century on the north of the region inhabited by White Croats (around Krakow, in parts of Poland, Bohemia and Slovakia). We learned this from a map shown at the exhibition "Carolingians and Croats" kept in Split in 2001. It seems that the name of Buzani is derived from the name of river Bug in Ukraine, where they lived. They are mentioned in so called "Geograf Bawarski" and later in "Povest vremennyh let": "Buzhane zane sedoša po Bugu". Later on they were called Wolynianie (Volyniani). I am indebted to Halina Watrobska, Gdansk, Poland, for this last information.
For the town Senj it is known to have been bishop's seat already in the fifth century. Before the tragic Krbava battle with the Turks in 1493 the region of Lika and Krbava, together with Senj, had numerous important cultural and spiritual centers. For instance, in the Middle Ages it had as many as 20 monasteries, while after Turkish penetrations only two of them survived in Senj. The remaining two were subsequently closed by Joseph II.
In 1248 the Senj bishop Philip obtained written permission from Pope Innocent IV for the Glagolitic Mass to be used in the Senj Cathedral, as well as in all areas where the custom had existed. The same permission was given in 1252 to Benedictines from the monastery of St. Nikola near Omisalj on the island of Krk. These events were important for further flowering of Croatian Glagolitic culture. This decision by Pope Innocent IV had also ecumenical importance, since Croatian Glagolitic mass was very close to the mass served among Orthodox Slaves (Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Bulgarians, Ukrainians Byelorussians and Russians). These questions are discussed in [Bogovic].
It is interesting that even today in Croatia there exists the second name of Glagolić, dating from the 15th century. Also, it is indicative that there exists the village of Glagolić near the town of Kosinj in Lika. The name of the town of Gospic (now the seat of the Gospic - Senj bishopric) is derived from the Croatian name of Madonna: Gospa.
Most of Glagolić families live in Turopolje, a region South of Croatia's capital Zagreb. In the village of Velika Mlaka there is a street called Glagolići. I express my gratitude to Mr. Mišo Glagolić (sic!) for this information (2005).
The village of Glagolišće is mentioned in Acta croatica, in an important monograph by Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski published in 1863 (printed in Zagreb in the Croatian Glagolitic Script!), on pp. 75, 132, 133, 210. We do not know if this village coincides with the metioned village of Glagolić.
St. Vojtech (Adalbert) visited Croatia in 989 while on his return from Rome to his native White Croatia. On that occasion he was in Skradin and Modrus. See an article by Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski in [Hrvatski putopis, p. 76].
s a young man King Charles IV visited for several days the town of Senj in 1337, when he was only 21. In this important Glagolitic center, with the unique Roman Catholic cathedral where only the Glagolitic liturgy had been served (instead of Latin rite), he made friends with the nobleman Bartolomej Frankapan. Frankapan supplied him with military escort on his journey to Tirol, where he was to meet his brother. The Czech king Charles IV of Luxemburg built a Glagolitic convent in Prague in 1347, where Croatian Benedictines from the island of Pasman were invited as teachers. It is remarkable that the convent was just a few hundred meters from the famous Charles University, built the next year, in 1348. Charles IV also founded the University of Vienna in 1365. We recall by the way that the oldest university in Croatia has been founded in the city of Zadar in 1396.
Some of important personalities in the history of the Glagolitic script related to Lika and Krbava are:
Ja, Stipan od Staroga Dubrovnika, biskup Modruški i vičnik Svete krune Uarske, posvitih ovu crikvu na poštenie svetoga Luke, pisara Marie Blažene.
As pointed out to me by Mihaela Sokić from Dubrovnik, the Old Dubrovnik (Stari grad Dubrovnik) refers to a Bosnian town north of Sarajevo that disappeared after the fall of Bosnia under the Turks in 1463. This town in Middle Bosnia was founded by merchants from the famous Dubrovnik. See a series of three articles by Perica Mijatovic under the common title "Zla kob starobosanskog grada Dubrovnika," in Stećak, Sarajevo, No 65, No 66, and No 67, 1999.
Above is the the facsimile from the aforementioned book by Franjo Glavinić (1585. - 1652).
The concluding sentence (describing the muniment) mentions
that Stipan consecrated this church in the year 1288 (two years
before the arrival of the Nasareth House, i.e., Santa Casa, to the Trsat Sanctuary near the city of Rijeka, Croatia).
In italics is
emphasized the aforementioned text in Croatian, and above it (in the
second line) it was indicated to have been written in "scrittura
Illirica" (that is, in Croatian Glagolitic Script). See p. 34 (Croatian
translation on p. 112) of this important book by Franjo Glavinić
1652), published in 1648 in Udine:
Franjo Glavinić: Historia Tersettana, reprint and Croatian translation, Rijeka, Zagreb, Liber, 1989, afterword by Eduard Hercigonja, UDK 949.713:09
The famous Vinodol Code from 1288, mentions the Modruš princes.
he first part of the Code Slave 73 (Glagolitic collection kept in Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris) was written in 1375 by Grgur, son of Martin Borislavić from Modruš, then by Stipan supisac, and prvad Mikula na Lindare.
We know that by the end of 14th century a Paulist Glagolitic convent of sv. Nikola was built 4.5 km south of Modrus. Available documents from 1444 to 1475 mention a Glagoliti paulist vicar Stanislav, of the Polish origin. It is interesting that he translated Rules of the Paulist order from Latin into Croatian, in the Glagolitic script! He was vicar in the above mentioned convent of sv. Nikola on the mount of Gvozd (since the 18th century called Kapela). See [Runje].
Paval dijak is Krbave was a student in Paris in the beginning of 15th century, a student of Georges d'Esclavonie. Georges d'Esclavonie, or de Sorbonne, was a Glagolitic priest from the same period, and professor at Sorbonne in Paris. According to [Stanko Tenšek], his predecessors could be from Krbava. Paval dijak from Krbava left us an interesting leaf in kept in Tours, containing his exercises in various scripts: Gothic, Hebrew, and Croatian Cyrillic, where he also wrote his name ("to pisa Paval Dijak is Krbava kakob umil"). Georges d'Esclavonie was in close relations with students from Krbava (de Corbavia). It is worth mentioning that in one of his manuscripts kept in the City Library (former Cathedral Library) kept in Tours in France, George de Sorbonne mentions the following list of Croatian bishops that practiced Glagolitic Mass (see here, bottom on the left):
i pozdravlenje knezu Jurju
ne of the most beautiful Glagolitic books is Missal of Prince Novak from 1368, written in Krbava, now kept in the National Library in Vienna, Austria. The missal contains the earliest known Croatian verses in the Glagolitic script (see Acta croatica, pp. 317 318):
I pomisli vsaki
The famous Middle Age
sequence "Dies irae", appears in the missal of Prince Novak more than
hundred years earlier than in Latin missals in Europe. It also contains
notation. Written by Prince
Novak Disislavic for saving his soul, its beautiful Glagolitic letters
were later used as a model for printing the first
Croatian incunabulum in 1483
(Missal Romanum), only 28 years after
Gutenberg's Bible. Prince Novak is from Ostrovica, from the clan of
Mogorovic. According to dr. Marija s. Agnezija Pantelic, the Missal of
Prince Novak was written according to a missal from the convent of sv.
Marija in Zadar.
and Tomić, Slikarstvo, p. 154].
All of them are rich with nice miniatures. It is known that Bartol lived in Zadar for about thirty years, from 1410 to 1440, see [Runje, p. 17].
According to dr. Marija s. Agnezija Pantelić, it is possible that the artistic atmosphere created by Bartol Krbavac enabled the appearance of world's famous painter Julije Klovic (1498-1578), known as "Michelangelo of miniature."
Blaz Jurjev Trogiranin was outstanding painter from 15th century, working in Trogir. He was born in Lapac. Among many sacral paintings we should mention a grand polyptych in the cathedral of St. Lovro in Trogir, on which he left us his short note in Glagolitic quickscript around 1435.
The oldest known Glagolitic document written in Glagolitic quickscript is a muniment from Pocitelj (Lika) from 1393. It mentions ...Tomaš i Butko krbavski lički buški i procaja knezi.
The oldest known Croatian cursive Glagolitic muniment that we know of (and preserved in the original) is a little bit older - from 1376 (Dobrinj).
In Golubić near the town of Bihać (now in western Bosnia, ie. Turkish Croatia) a Glagolitic tablet was found where among others the Krbava Prince Tomas Kurjakovic is mentioned, and his support for building strongholds on the island of Ripac on the Una river in 1442. The tablet, which used to be in the church of St. Martin, ruined by the Turks, is now in the famous Franciscan monastery in Fojnica in central Bosnia. See [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, p. 164]. For Croatian Glagolitic heritage in Bosnia see here.
In the ruins of the bourg of Buzim a short glagolitic fragment containing nice and and pretty large glagolitic letters (up to 13 cm) was found, dating from 15th century. It is kept in the Museum of Lika in Gospic, see [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, p. 113].
An interesting Glagolitic seal from 1492 from Krbava mentions two Krbava dukes Petar and Juraj; see below. It contains a circular inscription Petar i Juri, knezi krbavski, and the herald of the noble family of Gusić. It can be seen on the Exhibition of the Glagolitic Script in the city of Rijeka.
There are some opinions that the 1483 Glagolitic incunabulum might have been be printed in once famous Modruš (Valentin Putanec), while others propose the town of Roc in Istria. Unfortunately, the exact data are missing, and the colophon of the book does not indicate the precise place of printing.
In 1486 bishop Kristofor
of Modruš (born in Dubrovnik) had
from Modrus to the town Novi Vinodolski on the Croatian littoral
before the Turkish onslaughts. Once glorious Modrus, important
spiritual and trade
center of Middle Age Croatia, lost its importance after 1493,
and today it is a small village with sad remains of the Trzan
castle (its walls were 1200 m. long).
ban (governor) Ivan Karlović,
the last descendant of the family
of dukes of Kurjakovics', was born in a rich noble family, with their
property mainly in Lika and Krbava. Due to Turkish penetrations he lost
many of his lands. He ruled during the great Croatian exodus in the
16th century. After exhausting battles he died at the Medvedgrad bourg
near Zagreb, and was buried in the Church of Majka Božja Remetska in
Zagreb. He entered into the poetry of Croatian exiles in Italy, Austria
(Gradisce - Burgenland), and the poetry of Croatian Muslims. His sister
Jelena was mother of the Siget hero Nikola
A very beautiful Glagolitic muniment from 1469 (Licka listina) is preserved with six hanging seals ("pecati visuci"). It mentions a duke and judges of the noble Kings' office in Lika ("knez i suci plemenitoga stola kraljeva... v Lici). Also, a testament in the Glagolitic script is preserved, by which a certain Matijica Utišenić leaves some lands to a church on the Velebit mountain above Medak ("crkvi svetago Ivana na Gori").
Broz Kolunić (more precisely, Broz Kacitic from the clan of Kolunic from Lika) wrote a collection of Lenten sermons in the Glagolitic script in 1486 in Knezeva vas near Otocac. It is interesting that the colophon with his signature was written in Croatian cyrillic.
A valuable golden pectoral romanic cross of Krbava bishops, dating from 13th century, is kept today in the town of Bribir. In 1491 a basement had been attached with engraved glagolitic text, mentioning Jurki Andrijicic, see [Fucic, Glagoljski natpisi, p.105].
Pop (Rev.) Martinac (plemenem Lapcanin, i.e. from Lapac) lived in Grobnik near Rijeka, and described in the Novljanski II breviary from 1495 (completed in the course of 11 years) the tragic defeat of Croats in the 1493 Krbava battle with the Turks. Both Novljanski I and II breviaries were prepared by members of Glagolitic Paulist order in Croatian south.
Simun Kožičić Zadranin (or Benja) born in Zadar, Krbava - Modruš bishop, founded the Glagolitic printing house in Rijeka (1530-1531) where six books were printed:
In 1513 at the Lateran Council he delivered a speech in front of the Pope asking for help in the struggle against Turkish onslaughts. We know that Simun Kozicic Zadranin planned to publish the history of Croatian land (hrvacke zemle), but the book was either not published, or lost. Namely, Kozicic asked Toma Niger (Toma Nigris), the Skradin bishop (and later the Trogir bishop), and close friend of the famous Marko Marulić, to write the book about history of Croatian land (hrvacke zemle) and its glory (slavi ee).
It is little know that at least during several decades until the mid 15th century priests in the Trsat monastery near Rijeka were of the Glagolitic rite, see [Runje].
Nikola Modruški, bishop of Senj from 1457, and bishop of Modruš from 1461, was among others Pope's representative at the court of Stjepan Tomašević in Bosnia, and on the court of the Hungarian king Matijaš Corvin in Budim. His huge library whose origin is from Modruš, was left to the Vatican. He wrote a treatise in defense of the Glagolitic Script in Modruš bishopric. It is regarded to be the first polemic treatise in the history of Croatian literature. It is interesting that Nikola Modruški was born in Boka kotorska. In 1474 he printed the first book among the Croats, in the Latin language.
rbava and Lika were very little studied in the context of their relations to Bosnia and Bosnian Chruch, whose members were called Krstyans. It seems that the Krbava Bishopric was founded in 1185 among others also in order to prevent spreading of heresy of Bosnian Krstyans.
Here is a list of complete Glagolitic books related to Lika, Krbava and Modruš:
and numerous very old and valuable fragments.
The Vatican breviary Illirico 5, kept in Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, dating from 14th century, and written by Petar pisac (Petar the scribe), has been redeemed from the Turks in 1487. It is indeed deeply moving how ordinary people helped with their money and goods in order to redeem the book, although very poor, living in regions looted during frequent Turkish penetrations.
According to Henrik Birnbaum (from the University of Los Angeles, USA), the New York Missal (1400-1410), kept in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, might originate from the Zadar hinterland or Lika-Krbava region.
Here we provide the list of Glagolitic missals, breviaries and collections, related to Lika i Krbava, according to [Damjanović]:
The Modruš urbar from 1486 is important Croatian legal document, originally written in the Glagolitic Script, but preserved in two Latin translations from 16th and 17th centuries. The books has 40 pages, and its reprint exists, see [Lopasic]. It is interesting that Modrus, which today is a small village (with glorious past), was mentioned for the first time in 1160.
Among Croatian legal documents, belonging to Acta Croatica, we may mention several very interesting and beautiful Glagolitic documents kept in the library of Franciscan convent of sv. Kriz in Ljubljana, Slovenia. They were written in Lika in 1433, 1469, in Senj in 1513, and in Slunj in the 16th century, see [Voncina]. We also mention the glagolitic document from Kaseg (Lika), 1513, kept in the Senj Archives, described in [Hercigonja, Na temeljima hrvatske knjizevne kulture].
In the city of Zadar, as well as in Rab, there were numerous Glagolitic priests from Krbava (de Corbavia) in 14th and 15th centuries. Jakov Blažević de Modrussia (Jakov pok. Blaza) was a notable copyist and illuminator of Glagolitic books, working in Zadar. Also a considerable number of Glagolitic priests were active on island of Krk, islands in the region of Zadar (Uljan, Pasman, Iz, Dugi otok), and in Istria. For example,
For many more details see [Runje, Tragom stare licke povijesti].
In 1499., in the environs of Zadar, the Turks have cruelly killed parisheners and their glagolitic priests. They were don Luka, don Martin Hrvatinic (i.e. Martin the Croat), don Jakov Gunjić, don Juraj Oplanić, don Vid and don Stipan. See [Bogović and Jurišic, p. 81].
In Istrian peninsula there is a village of Modrušani and Otočani (between Kanfanar and Zminj), then another Modrusani west of Svetvinčenat. On the north of Istrian town of Buzet there is the village of Krbavica. On the west of Sveti Petar u Šumi there is the village of Brinjani, while near the mouth of the Lim channel in Istria there is the village of Medaki. All these names are obviously related to those Croats who had to escape before the Turks from the region Lika and Krbava. It is well known that people Lika spoke cakavian Croatian language (ca = what) before the arrival of Turks.
The Kosinj valley is one of the most beautiful in Croatia
When speaking about the Kosinj 1491 breviary (incunabulum), whose only preserved sample is kept in the National Library of St. Marco (Marciana) in Venice, we should stress that the Kosinj, which today is a small village in Lika, once was vary famous. Many geographical maps from 15th and 16th centuries confirm this, where Kosinj is included. On the Old maps of the Adriatic prepared by various European authors, mostly Italian, Kosinj appears as many as 11 times. It is interesting that in some of them Corbavia is indicated as the region between Metlika (Merling) and Mokrice (Mocriz) u today's Slovenia, covering also the Croatian region of Zumberak (the reason is clear - it was a consequence of massive Turkish persecutons from the region of Krbava):
On all these maps (and many other) we can see the fortress of Modrus (Modrussia) denoted as outstanding place.
The above maps clearly
indicate the proportions of Turkish persecutions
in Croatia in the 16th century. For more details see altogether eight
maps from [Lago,
on pp. 27, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 78,
107], published in Vencie and Rome between između 1560. 1593., in which
CORBAVIA was drawn in this way, on the West of Zagreb (on the map
indicated as Zagabria). See also the maps related to the Kosinj printing house.
A prominent Dutch geographer Abraham Ortelius, (16th century) prepared the book Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerpen), which was the first world atlas in history. Its 1577 edition contains a map where the town of Kesin (Kosinj) is indicated, while in the accompanying description one can read that in Kesin there is a (glagolitic) printing machine. Personal information by Mr. Ivo Dubravčić, outstanding Croatian old book collector, Delft (The Netherlands).
From the previous list of Glagolitic books related to Lika and Krbava we cite some of preserved missals and breviaries. We should stress that these are only sad remains of once flourishing Glagolitic literature in this part of Croatia.
Joseph Vajs). The Kirin psalter is the oldest known Croatian Glagolitic psalm book. It is a complete psalm book, and designed for singing. This beautiful book is kept in the National Library Clementinum in the Prague, Czechia, in the Department of rarities. We recall by the way that the same Department is in possession of the impressive Czech Glagolitic Bible from 1416, which is also a result of activities of Croatian glagolites in Czechia, but written by their Czech students.
Missal of Pavao Modrušanin from 1528. A sample kept in the Nationa and University Library in Zagreb.
Missal of Pavao Modrušanin from 1528. A sample kept in the Library of HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), Zagreb.
According to existing archival documents it is known that a Croatian Glagolitic Bible existed in Zadar already in 1380.
The Bishopric archive in Senj possessed abundant legal documentation written in the Glagolitic script. To this day only the glagolitic "Kvaderna" from 16/17th centuries and the testament of Toma Partinic from 1445 survived. During the Second World War the Senj Cathedral was destroyed (1944) together with many legal documents written in the glagolitic. It is known that in the 19th century there were 46 of them, see [Lokmer, Katedrala..., str. 509]). Only the above two mentioned documents survived. Mile Bogović proved that the Statute of the Senj Kaptol from 1340 was originally written in the glagolitic.
In the Senj Cathedral there is one of the oldest known Croatian coats of arms, dating from 1491. It belonged to the family of Perović from Lika, mentioned in the accompaning text in Latin.
In 1456 Toma Arcidiakon Senjski finished the Vrbnik I. missal in Senj (256 vellum pages), kept in the lovely town of Vrbnik on the island of Krk.
Here is a contemporary inscription in the Glagolitic script, that can be seen in the town of Senj:
In Lika, Krbava and Senj we know of only several preserved epigraphic monuments:
The church of St. Marko Grob (Grob = Grave), old and new, near Udbina
Two of several glagolitic fragments found at the church of St. Marko Grob near Udbina after the military-police liberation action Storm in 1995. Many thanks to Mr Radomir Juric from the Archecological Museum in Zadar and to Mr. Tomislav Mihatov. For description see [Juric].
Here we should mention a huge semicircular inscription in Istrian Padova (today's Kašćerga), chiseled by pop Andrij Prašić in 1529, born in Buzane in Lika. There are also several other epigraphic Glagolitic monuments from Senj, dating from 1477, 1483, 1522, 1543, ~1540 (lost), and two from 15th century, see [Fucic].
On 19 July 1433, see [Vončina], a public legal document was issued by the "valachian court" ("vlaški stol") in Lika. Its content is to guarantee and protect the rights of properties of the church of Sv. Ivan on the Hill (Sv. Ivan na Gori), probably near Medak, [JPG].
On 9 September 1469, see [Vončina], the court confirms the testament of the Lika nobleman Matijice Utišenića, by which he donates his land to the church of sv. Ivan na Gori, [JPG]. These documents are a part of Acta croatica.
The Senj Bishopric was founded around 1150. The town of Senj had very strong cultural and economic ties with the island of Krk. It is worth mentioning that in Senj there were counselor and merchant representations from Dubrovnik, Genoa, Catalonia (Barcelona), and other European cities. According to [Bogović, Glagoljica, bitna odrednica hrvatskog identiteta, p. 73] and [Barbarić, Brodarstvo u Senju i Podgorju kroz prošlost, p. 7], the city of Senj had Catalonian consulate already in 1248.
Here we should mention also the Statute of Senj dating from 1388 (or according to some authors from 1348), written in the Latin script, based on older documents.
A professional binder of Glagolitic books was Grgur Kraljić from Senj, working in the Senj printing house. Between 1497 and 1502 he lived in Istria, near Pazin (in Roč, Beram and Hum). We know that in Istria he rebound five Glagolitic books, among them the Vitus of Omišalj breviary (written in 1396), which is now kept in the National Library in Vienna, Austria.
Marko Marulic is one of the most famous spiritual writers in the Latin language of the 15/16th centuries. His verses appeared printed in the Glagolitic Script alreday during his lifetime, in Transit of St Jerome (Transit sv. Jerolima), published in the town of Senj in 1508 under the title of Anjelske kriposti, in 144 doubly-rhymed dodecasylabic (ie 12 syllabic) lines. These verses, transcribed into the Glagolitic from the original Croatian text in Latin script, can be found by the end of the book. Many thanks to academician Anica Nazor for this information (2007). Here is a part of describing wisdom of St Jerome, see [Bratulic, Il poeta Marco Marulic e la tradizione glagolitica in Croazia, p 232]:
Older Croatian Glagolitic Transits of St Jerome have been studied by [Stefanic].
In the Szeczenyi Library in Budapest, Hungary, one can see the best preserved incunabulum of the Baromić Missal, printed in the town of Senj in 1494 (bought by Hungarians in Graz in the 19th century, for the huge sum corresponding to 150,000 DM; information by dr Antonija Zaradija Kis). Only 3 copies have been preserved, one of them is kept in the Saltykov-Shchedrin Library in St. Petersburg, Russia. Blaz Baromić, born in 1450 in the town of Vrbnik on the island of Krk, is known for his unique broken ligatures in the history of printing.
Blaz Baromić started his typographic career in Venice, where he published a breviary in 1493. Today we call this incunabulum Baromić's breviary. In the colophon we read that this book represents "brevijal hrvatski" (Croatian breviary). Two copies are kept in Croatian capital Zagreb, one in München (in Germany), one in Schwarzau (in Austria), and one in Sibiu (in Romania).
It is interesting to mention that the first printing house in Zagreb, which is today the capital of Croatia, was founded around 1694 by Pavao Ritter Vitezovic from the town of Senj.
A Senj bishop Franjo Jožefić, polyglot and a person of high education, wrote a Glagolitic letter to Ban (governor) Kristofor Frankapan with a very cultivated language and style. See [Europe - Croatia, II, Hercigonja's article].
Only a few glagolitic epigraphic inscriptions from Senj survived to these days:
Rudolf Strohal mentions in his monograph Hrvatska glagolska knjiga, p. 67, a relatively large number of glagolitic documents from Senj, which unfortunately disappeared during the WWII bombing of the city: 1437, 1445, 1463, 1466, 1475, 1482, 1483, 1485 (2x), 1486 (2x), 1487 (2x), 1488 (2x), 1489, 1496 (2x), 1500 (2x), 1509, 1510, 1511, 1518, 1521 (2x), 1523, 1524, 1545 (2x), 1556 (6x), 1557, 1558, 1559 (2x), 1561 (2x), 1577, 1584, 1589, 1599.In the time of carving of the Senj inscription (1330), also the Senj Statute appeared, written in the Glagolitic Script in 1340, and not in 1380, as most sources mention (the statute has been preserved in the Latin transcription). Namely, according to Dr. Mile Bogović, numerous historical events can be understood only if the year of appearance of the Senj statute is taken to be 1340. See Mile Bogović: Senjska glagoljska baština (The Senj glagolitic heritage), Senjski zbornik 35, 11-26 (2008), footnote 6 on p. 14.
According to the same article by Dr. Mile Bogović, in the time of Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski there were 46 glagolitic parchemnt documents in the Senj church archives (now there is none), while 70 documents from Acta croatica is either by content or by the place of appearance connected with Senj. This is (besides human losses) a tragic consequence of multiple bombing of Senj by Germans and the Allies in the period between 1943 and 1945. See the articles by Ante Glavičić and Mihael Sobolevski.
Closely related to Lika and Senj was the fortress of Ledenice near Novi Vinodolski, mentioned already in the famous Vinodol Code from 1288, written in the Glagolitic script. Ledenice was especially important from 15th to 17th centuries, since it was one of those fortresses that prevented free Turkish penetration to Istria and Furlania. For more details see [Laszowski].
In the town of Brinje there is a valuable Gothic chapel of St. Trinity built in 1405-15, placed within the Sokolac fortress (literally, Falcon's fortress). The chapel was built by prince Nikola IV (of the Frankapan family), and his wife Dorotea Gorjanski. These two names appear also in valuable glagolitic vellum levaes of the confraternity of Sveta Marija od Gorice from the island of Krk (Baška bay). Two of these leaves are in Norway as a part of the famous Schoyen collection of old manuscripts.
See a glagolitic document of prince Anz Frankapan (Ivan VIII.) from 1495, written on parchment in Brinje, concerning donation of a village to the convent of St. Spas near Senj.
Moscow fragments of a Croatian glagolitic missal from the 15th century have been written in a Paulist convent of St. Spas near Senj, and are kept in the State Historical Museum in Moscow (Gosudarstvenny istoričeskij muzej, the collection of manuscripts of A.D. Čertkov, No. 387).Latinist literature is among the richest in Europe. Although not directly related to Glagolitic heritage, we cannot avoid to mention several outstanding Croatian Latinists connected with Lika, Krbava and Modrus:
A famous Croatian Renassance writer Petar Zoranic (1508-1669?) born in the city of Zadar, and known for his patriotic novel Planine (The Mountains), has his roots in Lika. His ancestors were the noble family Tetačić from Lika, and when the Ottomans attacked Nin at the end of the 15th century, the family moved to the fortified town of Zadar. Zoranic returned to Nin when the Ottoman attacks lessened. He was born in Zadar to his parents, father Ivan and mother Elizabeta Medulla. In Planine he explicitely mentions the Glagolitic Script: "...i da bi me tumačenje blaženoga Hieronima ne uvižbalo, s prirokom bih pisal, boju se" ("da nisam uvježban u pismu sv. Jeronima, bojim se da bih teško pisao", i.e., "if I were not trained in the script of St. Jerome, I am afraid that I would not have been able to write").
(1745.-1771.), born in Split, was a Cres bishop,
and later the Archbishop of Zadar. He wrote Bukvar
printed in Rome in 1753 in the Glagolitic and Cyrilic Scripts.
the Zadar Archbishop, Mate Karaman wrote in 1740 in his report to the
Propaganda Fide to Rome about the number of Glagolitic priests in the
then Venetian Dalmatia, except the island of Korčula:
The list of names from the Index of Kukuljević's Acta croatica, related to Gacka, Lika, Krbava, Modruš, Senj and some nearby places.
All the corresponding rolls are written in the GlagoliticScript.
(D. = Dodatak = Addendum to Kukuljević's monographs Acta croatica; the number is the page no; a notion may appear on a an indicated page more than once)
Andrija, biskup senjski (1496), 164, Andrija, žakan senjski, 164, Andrij fratar, Vikar Bužki, 121, 124, Anić Vladko iz Srba, 80, Anton, fra, obrani biskup modruški (1484), 121, 123, Anton, vikar crkve sv. Mikule na Gvozdu modruškom i vižitator Hrvat i Istrije, 162, Antonović Mikula, sudac purgarah steničkih, 204, Apaj, permancer i vikar modruški, 92, barak, kanonik senjski, 185,
Baronić Blaž, pop, kanonik senjski, 184, Bašan de Saki, knez, vicekapitan senjski, 260, Batrić Ivan, odvjetnik u Okruglah, D. 318, Belusić Ivan iz Senja, 42, Bičina u Lici, 200, Biseće, selo i kotar lički, 174, 176, 177, Bitoraj, selo brinjsko, 172, Blaž, podknećin plemenitoga stola bužkoga, 58, Blaž s Pola, purgar stenički, 185, Blaževa luka, selo modruško, 126, Bočača u knežtvu bužkom, 172, Bočači, selo ličko, 180, Bogutić Jurja, kanonik i arhiprvad crkve senjske, 281, Bot od Baine Andrijaš, Dalmacije, Hrvat i Slovinskoga Ban i senjski kapetan, 193, 194, 195, Botuke, selo Bužko, Breze, selo modruško, 125, Brinje, grad, 55, 56, 136, 152, 154, 158, 160, 164, 172, 173, 181, Brnardo, arhiprvad modruški, 92, Bročnani, selo ličko, 168, Budišić Franko od plemena Mogorović, priur kloštra sv. Marije u Novom, 156, Budišić Franko, priur od Zažičnom, 175, 176, 178, Budišić Franko, priur u Zažitnom, 181, 190, Budišić Mihalj od Like, 125, Buk, selo bužko, 172, Butko, knez krbavski, lički i bužki, 45, Bužan, grad, 11, Bužani, mjesto, 120, 133, 148, 182, 183, Buže, Bućje, Bužane grad i Bužki grad, 58, 82, 172, Bužin grad, 193, Bužko knežtvo, 119, 135, 172, Crikvenica u biskupiji Krbavskoj, 54, 67, 68, 70, 186, 248,
Crikveno, selo modruško, 126, Čelopek, selo u Bužah, 148,
Čičić, pleme modruško, 126, Čitar u kotaru bužkom, 74, Črmanj kal, selo, 114, Črna ves, selo ličko, 166, 168, Črnica, selo kod Modrušah, 157, Čubranić Francisko, sudac senjski, 249,
Dabar, selo krbavsko, 133, Djeanišević Martin iz Srba, 79, Doljani, selo ličko, 168, Dragovola, grašćak rmanskii knez stola lapačkoga, 71, Drašković Juraj i njegovi sinovi i unuci, 142, Drašković Juraj iz bužkoga stola, 200, Drašković Matija, 139, Draškovići, plemeniti iz sela Dolnoga Zažična, 142, Dražić Šimun iz Bužan, 90, Dubčani, selo krbavsko, 183, 191, 195, 196, Dubovik u kotaru buškom, 74, Dumankuš, prepošt belgradski i guvernator senjski, 124, Durar Jakov, niemački kapetan u Senju (1527), 222, Dušmanić Bartol, pop, kanonik senjski, 212,
Frankapan Ivan, sin bana Mikule (1440), Krčkoga otoka gospodin i knez krčki i modruški (1466), 100, 101, Frankapan Jelža, udova kneza Bartola, mati kneza Anža i Mikule, kneginja senjska, brinjska i jelovska (1461), 90, Frankapan Martin, knez krčki, modruški, bakarski i senjski, špan [župan] sve zemlje Vrbasa i grada Kozara, sin Mikule bana (1446), 67, (1447), 70, (1450), 76, (1455), 81, (1458), 85, (1468), 102, (1470), 104, (1475), 113, 114, (1502-2 pokojni), 116, 115, 182,
Gal Ivan, kapetan ogulinski, vošćarski i modruški, 240, Gal Martin, kapetan senjski, 245, Gašele, selo ličko, 168, Gladovica, selo modruško, 126, Glagolišće, 75, 132, 133, 210, Goli vrh, selo modruško, 126, Gomerie, Gojmirje, selo modruško, 126, Gradščina u Zažičnom s monastirom reda sv. Pavla, 150, Grd z Bužan, podknežin, 45, Gvozd modruški, 78, 81, 157, 162, Gvozdnica, selo u Bužanih, 129, Hitrišćevo, selo modruško, 125, Hotilja vas, bužko selo, 172, Hrabek, selo modruško, 126, Hrašćevići, selo ličko, 171, Humćan, selo u Bužah, 148, Humčani, selo u bužkom kotaru, 75,
Ivan, knez bužki, 75, Ivan, knez krbavski, 216, 228, Ivanuš, vikar sv. Mikule z Gvozda, 48, Ivičin Ivan od Mirine, špan lički, 170,
Jakov, arhiprvad otočki, 193, Jesen, selo brinjsko, 172, Jožefić Franjo, biskup senjski, 215, 218, 219, 221, 223, 226, 230, 232, Juraj iz Modruš, priur molstira sv. Spasa blizu Senja, 100, Jurevac, pleme ličko, 200, Jurevo, selo modruško, Jurhanić Luka z Otres, špan rotni suda ličkoga, 147, Jurko, arhižakan modruško, 92,
Kačić Dragiša z Čehović u Lici, 182, 200, Kapčić Blažko, kanonik modruški, 92, Karin, priur klaštra svete Jelen od Senja, 63, 65, Kosin, grad, 137, Kosin, grad i selo u Bužah, 172, 173, Kosinski Ivan iz Bužah, 120, 144, Kosinski Juraj, 130, 137, 172, Koščice, selo bužko, 151, 153, Kovačić, pleme ličko, 200, Krakar, selo brinjsko, 172, Krasno, selo kod Senja, 153, Krbava, 122, Krbavac Vid D. 327, Krbavčić Matij, 202, Krbavski knezi: Tomaš i njegovi sinovi Ivan, Karlo, Pavo, gospoda Baguška (od Baga), 89, Krbavsko polje, 155, Krištofor, arcidjakon senjski, biskup modruški i krbavski, 244, Krštofor Dubrovčanin, biskup modruški, 154, 155, 156, 165, Kućan, selo bužko, 120, Kuklić, selo u Lici, 129, 177, Kuterevo, selo kod Senja, 153,
Lagodušići, selo ličko, 167, 210, Lapac u hrv. Lici, 56, Lapački stol, 117, Lapčani, pleme, 120, 144, 156, Lepečić Grgur iz Bužan, 184, Leporin ili Zečić Mihovil, kanciler senjski, 218, Levnardo, vikar gatanski, 128, 129, Ličani, selo, 203, Ličko španstvo, 174, Lika, 138, 199, Liković Apaj, podknežin modruški, 92, Liš, selo krbavsko, 196, Ljubčići, selo kod Senja, 153, Ljubotin blizu Senja, 45, Ljubotina Draga s crkvom i monastirom sv. Spasa kod Senja, 159, Lucković Martin s Otočca, 218, Lučani, selo ličko, 162, Luka, priur sv. SPasa pred Senjom, 54, Lukčica, selo modruško, 126, Lukov dol, selo modruško, 126,
Maglići, selo u Bužah, 84, Makšak Petar, tarnik kapitan senjski, 129, Mali Prokičci, selo u vladanju brinjskom, 159-160, Malić Juraj od plemena Mogovrović, Malić Petar, knez kraljeva stola ličkoga, 161, Marin plebanuš sv. Magdalene u Otočcu, 193, Marinac, selo kod Senja, 119, Marinci, selo bužko, 75, 199, 202, Marinci, selo kod Senja, 153, Martin s Parožić, arhiprvad senjski, 53, Martinac, pop, Lapčanin, 156, Marulić Ivan, kanonik senjski, 209, Matijašević, voin iz Srba, 79, Meres Juraj, sudac modruški, 114, Mihovil, arhižakan senjski, 121, Mikanić Juraj, pop, plebanuš gački, 233, Mikula, biskup modruški (1463), 92, Mikula, biskup modruški i krbavski (1461), 107, Mikula, opat modruki, 85, Mikulanić Ivan iz Senja, 42, Mikulanić Ivan, kanonik i vaikar senjski, 191, Miletić Mihovil, kanonik senjski, 206. 209, Modruš, 125, Modruša grad, 155, Modruše grad, 215, Modruši, grad, 45, 83, 85, 92, 110, 170, Modruški i krbavski, 85, Mogorović Tomaš, špan bužki, 144, 148, Mogorovići, pleme ličko, 166, 173, 174, 175, 177, Mohlić, selo u Bužah, 120, 124, 127, 148, 149, Mokro, selo u vladanju brinskom, 163, Mrganić Anton, kanonik senjski, 210, Mrmonić Šimun z Lapača, 71,
Na ukinjah, selo modruško, 171, Nebluh, miesto, 69, Nebluškoga plemena četiri kolena, 69, Nekorićki kotar u Lici, 200, Nemanić Mihovil, sudac bužki, 188, Nemanić Pavao, sudac bužki, 144, Novak, knez krbavski, sin kneza Petra, D. 317, Novo, selo bužko, 195, 196, 197,
Očokovo, selo modruško, 126, Omišlevje, selo gatansko, 193, Orlovčić Grgur, knez, kapitan senjski (1521), 207, 208, 209-210, Orlovčić, kapitan senjski (1523), 212, Orlovčić Juraj, špan u Lici, 138, Otočac, grad, 63, 109, 115, 126, 128, 194, 195, 208, Otočac, varoš u gatanskom kotaru, 116, Otres, selo ličko, 147,
Paladinić, pleme ličko, 175, Paližević Grgur, knez, vojvoda senjskih vojnikah, 260, Pavao, biskup senjski (1484), 121, 123, Pavao, biskup senjski i gatanski, 128, Per Juraj z Tugomer, vicešpan lički, 200, Petar, kanonik otočki 193, Petar, knez, sin kneza Novaka iz Krbave, D. 318, Petar, priur sv. marie z Brinj, 136, Petelinić Jerolim, kapitan senjski (1518), 206, 207, 208, Plasi, selo modruško, 125, Plasi, selo modruško, 125, Plastovo kod Srba, 79, Pliskovo, selo kod Modruše, Podsmlun, u Lici, 121, Podstene, selo bužko, 188, Pohmajević, 130, - sudac bužki, 135, Pohmajević Miklouš, porkulab u Otošcu i Gački, Polača, selo ličko, 147, Polak Ivan, fratar, priur i vaikar od sv. Mikule od modruškoga gvozda, 47, Polović Pavao, vikar modruški, 192, Povovsko, selo modruško, 126, Psivići, selo brinjsko, 130, 173, 180,
Račačević Ivanuš, porkulab rmanjski, 117, Radina vas, selo ličko, 161, Radoičić Frančiško, pop, kancilir biskupa modruškoga Šimuna, 218, Radovanić Blaž z Glagolišć, 75, Rafael Miser, svak kapitana senjskoga Petelinića, 208, Ratčić Vekan [treba Vlkan] u Tribihovićih, D. 318, Ratković Grgur iy Lapca, 71, Ravnina valška kod Brinja, 172, Ribničani, selo ličko, 138, 161, Ribnik, selo ličko, 174, 176, Rman, miesto u Hrvatskoj, 73, Rmanj, glavni grad plemena lapačkoga, 118, Rmanje, varoš sada u turskoj Hrvatskoj, 77, 78, Rača vas, selo bužko, 195, Ripač, grad, 157, - miesto, 70,
Sebidraža vas, selo ličko, 161, Selca, selo brinjsko, 172, Selišći, selo modruško, 125, Senj, 65, 68, 71, 99, 119, 123, 124, 128, 136, 182, 206, 207, 9, 210, 211, 212, 222, 224, 234, 244, 245, 249, - grad i kaštel, 231, Senjski kapitul sv. Marie, 71, Sičić Dumjan iz Lapaca, 71, Silvester, arhižakan senjski, 191, Sladoević Juraj, špan plemenitih ljudih Mogorovićah u Lici, 166, Slunjski Frankapan Franjo, knez krčki, senjski, modruški i pročaja, D. 330, Srakvino, selo bužko, 172, Srb, miesto, 79, Stanislav vikar samostana sv. Mikule na Gvozdu [podrijetlom Poljak! D.Ž.], 91, 109, 114, Stipan od staroga Dubrovnika, biskup modruški, 1, Sutpetar, selo ličko, 168, Sveta Jelena, kloštar kod Senja, 63, 65, 68, Sveta Jelena kod Senja, 160, Sveta Jelena, monastir kraj Senja u drazi vlaškoj, 151, 152, Sveta Jelena nad Senjom, 113, Sveta Maria u Brinjah, samostan, 136, Sveta Maria u Črnoj vesi, 166, 168, Sveta Maria u Otočcu, 126, Sveti Duh u Modrušah, 92, Sveti Marko, a kasnije sveta Maria, crkva u Modrušah, 92, Sveti Mikula na Gvozdu modruškom, 91, 92, 95, 109, Sveti Nikola od modruškoga Gvozda, 47, Sveti Spas, manastir pred Senjom, 48, 49, 53, 98, 100, Svilić Matej z Bužan, 127, Svoišća kod Modrušah, 95,
Šimić, kanonik otočki, 193, Šimun, biskup moddruški (1526), 218, Švićko jezero, 117,
Tihotina, vas u bužkoj županiji, 202, Tomaš, fratar, vikar klotra sv. Mikule na Gvozdu i provincijal fratar hrvatskih Istrie i poli mora, 209, 211, Tomaš, kanonik senjski (1529), 233, Tomaš, knez krbavski, lički i bužki, 45, Tomaš, knez krbavski humski i nebluški (1447), 68, Tomašić Tomaš, plem. Mogorović, 185, Tošići, vrh Modrušah, 93, Tožić, selo ličko, 200, Tožići, selo ličko, 209, Tožišće, selo 184, Tribihovići, D. 318, Tržišće, miesto u bužkom kotaru, 75, 120, 144, 148, 150, Tugomerići, 138, Tugomerić, pleme ličko, 166,
Urtičević Ciprijan, sudac senjski, 260, Vaska, selo u kotaru bužkom, 74, 126, 127, 183, 191,
Veronez Andrij, kanceler senjski, 260, Vitunj, selo modruško, 126, Vladići, pleme ličko, 167, Vrhovlan, pleme ličko, 166, Vrhovlani, selo ličko, 138, 161, Vukšić, selo ličko, 147, 171,
Zaborsko, selo kod Modrušah, 125, Zabrda, selo ličko, 177, Zahumić, selo bužko, 188, - selo i pleme, 175, 177, Zažičan, crkva i monastir sv. Marie, 174, 176, 177, - s monastirom sv. Pavla, 147, 149, Zažitno sa crkvom sv. Marie, 190, Zorić, pleme modruško, 126, Zulišće, selo modruško, 126,
Žudiin Andrija, purgar modruški, 92, Žunević Maroj, kapitan senjski (1482), 119, Župan hlm, selo kod Senja, 71,
i ka dila rese, a ka rane dušu,
which we took as the motto of this page dealing with the history of Glagolitic culture in Lika, Krbava and Senj.
Exodus of 20th century, Kristian Krekovic
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