Croatian Glagolitic Culture in Istria

Darko Žubrinić, 2008

www.croatianhistory.net/etf/istria.html

An essential part of Croatian Glagolitic heritage can be found in the area of Istria, the largest Croatian peninsula. According to Branko Fučić's fundamental monograph Glagoljiski natpisi, about a half of epigraphic (i.e. carved in stone or chiselled on walls or other surfaces) Croatian Glagolitic monuments only can be found in Istria. This 1982 monograph provides a list of about 500 such items, with numerous subitems. Since 1982 many new epigraphic monuments have been discovered, in my opinion more than hundred, mostly in the Zadar area (due to Nedo Grbin), and especially important are those discovered in the Dubrovnik area, dating from 11th century. Here one also has to take into account that significant number of Croatian Glagolitic monuments, books and manuscripts has been destroyed during the Turkish occupation, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the region of Lika and in the Zadar area.

The oldest known epigraphic Croatian Glagolitic monuments:

 

The above map was a part of documentation intended for international legal institutions in Europe which had to resolve the problem of international boundaries in Istrian peninsula after the WWII. It indicates Catholic churches which used the Glagolitic liturgy until 1918. The documentation was prepared in English, French and Russian.

Some of the most important Glagolitic monuments and manuscripts originate from Istria, for example, 

  • the Plomin tablet from 10th or 11th century and 
  • Istrian Boundaries, written over the period of 1275-1395, that is, in 13th/14th centuries.

Istrian Boundaries is the earliest known international diplomatic monument written in Croatian language, comprising 53 pages. It mentions Croatian name expressly as many as 24 times. It is not only an important legal document for Croatia, but also a literary monument of Croatian language.

See below for more information about Istrian Boundaries from 1275-1395.

Croatian name in glagolitic texts from around 1100 until 17th century

 

 

 

The above map was also a part of the documentation intended for international legal institutions in Europe which had to resolve the problem of international boundaries in Istria after the WWII. It indicates various sites containing Croatian Glagolitic monuments in Istria and on nearby islands.

Black triagles indicate the places with Glagolitic documents (for example church records of births, deaths, baptised, records of marriages etc.), black squares refer to public notaries, black discs to glagolitic inscriptions, and the circles to other documents like glagolitic missals and breviaries.

 

 


Croatian Glagolitic Breviary from Istria, 15th century.
It was also a part of the documentation.


Church records from Istria written in Croatian Glagolitic quickscript in 16-17th centuries.
It was also a part of the documenation.

Dr. Božo Milanović (1890.-1980.), istaknuti hrvatski svećenik iz Istre

The Role of Croatian Glagolitic Script in the Political Destiny of Istria after the WW2


Glagolitic epigraphic inscriptions in Istria (i.e. those chiselled on walls or other hard material), a map from [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, 1982]. So this map does not include thousands of glagolitic texts on paper or vellum (books, note-books, individual leaves, church records, etc.). Enormous amount of Croatian glagolitic heritage handwritten or printed on paper or vellum is kept outside of Croatia, according to my evidence in 27 countries and about 60 cities (mostly in Western Europe).


Glagolitic epigraphic inscriptions in Istria and its vicinity, a map from [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, 1982]. 
This map is a detail from the following one.


Glagolitic epigraphic inscriptions in Istria and its vicinity, an important map from [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, 1982]. Meanwhile, since 1982 when this important monograph was published, numerous new glagolitic epigraphic inscriptions were discovered (in my opinion more than a hundred), also in Slavonia on the North of Croatia, and in Konavle on the South-East of Croatia, near Dubrovnik. The above map is a continuation of previous similar endavours due to Rudolf Strohal [JPG], who tried to evidence and classify enormous and amazing Croatian glagolitic heritage.


Župe u kojima se u Istri sigurno glagoljalo [Radetić, str. 88]:

  • Tršćanska biskupija: Dolina, Lokve, Podpeć, Zasit, Buzet, Sovinjak, Račice, Vrh, Draguć, Hum, Roč, Nugla, Lainšće
  • Koparska biskupija: Kopar, Sv. Anton, Marezige, Kubed, Sočerga, Krkavce, Padena, Šmarje, Koštabona, Korte, Kaštel, Piran, Umag
  • Novigradska biskupija: Novigrad, Nova Vas, Završje, Zrenj, Oprtalj, Lovrečica, Materada, Momjan, Brda, Bronigla
  • Porečka biskupija: Cerjan, Višnjan, Bačva, Sveti Vital, Tar, Vabriga, Frata, Karojba, Kašćerga, Grdoselo, Žbandaje, Baderna, Sveti Ivan od Šterne, Mungeba, Funtana, Fuškulin, Gradina, Sveti Lovreč, Tinjan, Muntrilj, Beram, Pazin, Stari Pazin, Trviž, Kringa, Sveti Petar u Šumi, Žminj, Kanfanar, Rovinjsko selo
  • Pulska biskupija: Altura, Ližnjan, Pomer, Medulin, Premantura, Barban, Rakalj, Sveta Nedelja, Labin, Plomin, Berseč, Draga Mošćenice, Kraj, Lovran, Veprinac, Kastav, Klana, Boljun, Lupoglav, Šušnjevica, Paz
  • Pićanska biskupija: Novaki, Cerovlje, Lindar, Sveti Ivanac, Gračišće, Pićan, Kršan, Čepić, Krbune, Gologorica

Prema [Radetiću, str. 88], da se je glagoljalo od Lima do Fažane, u Balama i Vodnjanu, dokazuju
otkrića u župnim knjigama krštenih u Vodnjanu, gdje se upisivalo u knjigu krštenih negdje latinski,
a negdje glagoljicom.

 

Some of outstanding Istrian towns with strong glagolitic tradition are Roč, Hum, Draguć, Beram, Lovran, Lindar (near Pazin), Barban, convents in Božje polje near Vižinada (near Motovun), the town of Kopar, etc.

Istrian Boundaries, or Istrian Demarcation, in Croatian - Istarski razvod, is a document which was created over the period of 1275-1395, that is, strating in the 13th century. It defines borders (kunfini) between the Patriarchate of Aquileia, the Principality of Pazin and the Republic of Venice.

Istarski razvod, [PDF] 5.5 MB
transliteration from Croatian Glagolitic into Latin Script;
source [Luka Kirac]

The document was written on the basis of still earlier legal sources, dating back to 11th and 12th centuries. It was written paralelly in Latin, German and Croatian. Latin and German texts were written in the Latin Script, while Croatian text was written in the Glagolitic. Only the Glagolitic version is preserved in the form of its copy from the 16th century, comprising 53 pages. From this copy we know that it was written by Mikula Gologorički. This old Croatian Glagolitic text reveals us that also Latin and German versions existed, but unfortunately, they had been lost.

Istarski razvod mentions Croatian name (hrvacko ime) expressly at least 24 times. Here is a typical example:

... I ondi gospodin Menart sluga naprid sta, i pokaza listi prave ... ke listi ondi pred nas trih nodari postaviše, keh ta gospoda izibra: jednoga latinskoga, a drugoga nimškoga, a tretoga hrvackoga, da imamo vsaki na svoj orijinal pisat, poimeno od mesta do mesta kako se niže udrži, po vsi deželi.

hrva......ckoga

I tako mi niže imenovani nodari preda vsu tu gospodu pročtesmo kako se v njih udrži. I tako onde obe strane se sjediniše i kuntentaše i kordaše i razvodi svojimi zlamenji postaviše, i jednoj i drugoj strani pisaše listi jazikom latinskim i hrvackim, a gospoda sebi shraniše jazikom nemškim. ... itd. itd.

hrvackim

Istarski razvod, 1. dan (Istrian Boudnaries, The 1st Day)

Croatian name in glagolitic texts from around 1100 till 17th century.
 


The above expression "jazikom latinskim i hrvackim" is a proof that the Croatian name for Croatian language was in use at least since 1275, that is, more than two centuries before the discovery of America.

 
Istrian Boundaries, 1275-1395, is kept in the National and University Library in Zagreb. 

Istarski razvod
Istarski razvod - Istrian Boundaries, 1275-1395.
Istarski razvod

 

There are Italian and Latin translations from Croatian glagolitic, dating from the 16th century, which kept the original Croatian names for many places, a proof that the population in the Istrian hinterland was dominantly Croatian. By its juridical and literary value it can be ranked among the most interesting documents of that time in Europe. It is also the oldest international diplomatic document written in Croatian. Earlier written documents bear witness to the presence of the Croats in Istria from the seventh century. See a nice web page about Istrian Book of Boundaries provided by The British Library, London.

Istrian Boundaries is not only important legal document. It is oustanding monument of Croatian language. We should also mention that it had also political importance, especially after the the Second world war, when the international status of Istrian peninsula had to be resolved. It has been published for the first time by Ante Starčević in 1852.

Istrian Boundaries from 1275-1395 mention some even older charters, which were used in order to establish the boundaries, see [Kirac, p 221]:

  • Goćanska listina (Goćan charter), 1025
  • Rakaljska listina (Rakalj charter), 1027
  • Barbanska listina (Barban charter), 1058

Istarski razvod, prvi dan

We mention in passing that the oldest known charter written in the Croatian Glagolitic script is slightly older: Darovnica slavnoga Dragoslava (Muniment of famous Dragoslav) from January 1st, 1100. It comes from the island of Krk, and its copy is preserved from the 16th century.

According to Branko Fučić we know that the meaning of grm (= bush in contemporary literary Croatian), mentioned in Istrian Boundaries, is hrast ( = oak). In some Istrian villages people still use the name of grm meaning oak, not a bush.

In an interview published in Fokus (30 September 2005), Croatian academician Petar Simunovic explained that the name of Srb originates from an old Croatian verb serbati, srebati meaning "to sip", from which the noun "srb" has been derived. Thus "srb" denotes the spring of river Una, where the village lies. Compare this with the villages of Srbani (near Pula), and Srbinjak, both in Istria, which clearly have nothing to do with the Serbian name. The Istarski razvod from 13th century mentions the name of Srbar, meaning a water spring. More precisely, there is a dozen of occasions in the text where we encounter "lokva Srbar", meaning "Srbar pool" (lokva = pool).

U Istarskom razvodu spominje se nekoliko hidronima s korijenom SRB: luka Srber (Kirac, str. 320), lokva Srbar (2x na str. 320, opet na str. 321), Srbar i srbarski (str. 336), Srbar (str. 337). I današnje mjest SRB u Lici je hidronim, a ne etnonim. Informacija ljubaznošću dr. Vladimira Sokola, te akademika Petra Šimunovića. U [Sokol & Sokol, str. 29], to je naglašeno ovim riječima:
"Već je N. Klaić dobro napisala da Ljudevit iz Siska nije pobjegao nikakvim Srbima nego u S/a/rb u Lici, koji je još i danas ondje, a u srednjem vijeku bio znani grad i plemićka općina, odnosno županija. On međutim nije etnonim, nego hidronim, te svojom sličnoću pučkim etimolozima stvara nerješive probleme, pa tako i kod Einharda".
Dr. Vladimir Sokol je prvi ukazao na činjenicu da je ime hrvatskoga mjesta SRB u Lici zapravo hidronim, a ne etnonim.


U bilježničkim zapisima 1353.-1354. od zadarskog notara Andrije pok. Petra iz Cantua objavljen je jedan ugovor od 17.11.1354. u kojem piše ...Iursa condam Pervoslavi de Serbo, districtus Corbavie... (Jurša pok. Prvoslava iz Srba, iz Krbavskog distrikta). Izvor je ova knjiga: Andreas condam Petri de Canturio. Quaterni imbreviaturarum 1353-1355./Andrija pok. Petra iz Cantua. Bilježnički zapisi 1353-1355. Prepisao latinski tekst te izradio hrvatske sažetke i kazala Robert Leljak. S izvornikom sravnio, izvršio redakciju teksta i kazala te izradio kritički aparat i bilješke Josip Kolanović, sv. 1, Notarilia Iadertina/Spisi Zadarskih bilježnika 4, Zadar, Državni arhiv u Zadru, 2001., 783 str. Prikaz Damira Karbića o toj knjizi: [PDF].

 

 

 ACTA CROATICA

Istria in Acta croatica by Ivan Kukuljević Skacinski, 1863.:

4. svibnja 1325. Razvod međa posjedovanja patrijarha oglejskoga, općine pazinske, vlasti mletačke i drugih vlastelina u Istri. Istarski razvod (od 1275. do 1395. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 

2. studena 1395. Razvod međa među Mošćenicom i Kožljakom u Istri. Istarski Razvod. 46 47

1463. U Istri. Bilješke u hrvatskom psaltiru Petra Fraščića. 93 94

1463. Napis na štremnom zidu crkvice sv. Antuna na Vrhu blizu Pazina u Istri. 94

1492. Napis na grobom velikom kamenu u negdašnjoj pavlinskoj crkvi u Čepiću u Istri. 150

 ...



Znamo i za druge razvode u Istri, ne samo Istarski razvod, ali su se izgubili, vidi [Radetiću, str. 88-93]:

  • Razvod Golca 1025.
  • Raklja 1027.
  • Barbana 1058.
  • Momjana i Kaštela 1087.
  • Buja i Grožnjana 1130.
  • itd.



Hrvatski glagoljički natpisi i grafiti u Istri nalaze se u ovim mjestima (izvor [Branko Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi]; uključeno je i nekoliko mjesta u slovenskom dijelu Istre; ukupno barem 91 naselje):

Bačva, Bale, Barban, Belaj, Beram, Boljun, Borut, Brest, Brkač, Brseč, Brul, Butoniga, Buzet, Cerjon, Cerovlje, Čepić, Čepići, Črinikal, Dolenja Vas, Draguć, Dvigrad, Dvori nad Izolo, Gažon, Gologorica, Gračišće, Gradinje, Grdo Selo, Grimalda, Grožnjan, Hrastovlje, Hum, Kaldir, Kastav, Koštabona,  Kožljak, Krnica, Kršan, Kršikla, Labin, Labinci, Lindar, Lovran, Lovreč, Mali Mlun, Marčenigla, Materada, Medulin, Mošćenice, Mutovran, Oprtalj, Paz, Pazin, Pićan, Plomin, Pomjan, Predloka, Previš, Pridvor, Puče, Pula, Radovani, Rakalj, Rakotule, Roč, Rovinjsko selo, Rukavac, Savičenta, Selina, Slum, Sorbar, Sovinjak, Svet Ivanac, Sv. Ivan od Šterne, Šorići, Šterna, Štrped, Šumber, Šušnjevic, Trviž, Veprinac,  Višnjan, Vižinada, Volosko, Vodnjan, Vranja, Zamask, Zanigrad, Zarečje, Završje, Zrenj, Žminj, 

 

Lucidar is a Middle Age Encyclopaedia, translated from Czech source into Croatian Glagolitic in the 14th century. It describes the legendary mount of Učki as follows: 

Vaspet je jedna vlast jaže zovet se Istrija. I v toi zemlji e jedna gora jaže zovet se latinski Olifnos jaže je Učka. I te gori visokost ide daže pod oblaki

This text can be found as a decoration of the curtain of the Istrian People's Theatre in Pula, written in the Glagolitic Script.

 



Curtain of the Istrian People's Theatre in Pula. Source: Glagoljaške pouke i poruke

 

Beram is known for the small church of sv. Marije na Škrilinah, full of old glagolitic inscriptions, described in detail by [Branko Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi]. From the same place also the so called Ljubljana glagolitic codices also originate.

According to Branko Fučić, about a half of the overall number of about 500 Glagolitic inscriptions in Croatia from 10th to 18th centuries can be found in Istria only. Since the time when Fučić's book was published in 1982, about a hundred new Glagolitic inscriptions emerged.

 


Church of Sv. Marija na Škrilinah near Beram is full of glagolitic graffitis, source


Beram, 1431., župna crkva sv. Martina (Branko Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi)
1431. bi zidan Sveti Martin, biše pop Pilad, prošt Didak.

 
Beram, župna crkva sv. Martina, 1493. Kopija na Izložbi glagoljice u Rijeci.
IS = I(SUS)S'
S desne bočne strane piše glagoljičkim brojkama 1493.


Glagolitic Č (črv) in the Breviary of Vitus of Omišalj, 1396

 

 

Some of the glagolitic books that were in the town of Roč:

  1. Breviary of Vitus of Omišalj (Vid Omišljanin), 1396, written for the parish church of sv. Bartol in Roč, kept in the National Library in Vienna, weighing 10 kg. According to Branko Fučić, three herds of about 40 sheep each had to be sacrificed in order to obtain enough vellum for writing the book. The parchment was called živa harta by the glagolitic priests, that is, the living paper. According to Fučić, the value of the book corresponded to the value of about 7-8 cows. The book was later bound by pop Grgur Kraljić from Senj. It contains interesting marginal notes dating from later centuries, written by other glagolitic priests.
  2. Roč Missal of Bartol Krbavac, kept also in the National Library of Vienna, dating from around 1420. In my opinion, this is one of the most beautiful representatives of Croatian Glagolitic culture. The Roč missal was written for the church of sv. Bartol in Roč.
  3. Beram Missal of Bartol Krbavac, (490 pages, National Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia),~1425, written probably in the town of Bakar for the parish church in Beram, Istria.
  4. Kopenhagen Missal, 15th century, kept in the Royal Library (Kongelige Bibliothek) in Kopenhagen, Denmark.

 

 


Iluminations from the Breviary of Vid Omišljanin, 1368, kept in the National Library of Vienna, Austria. 
Note Sti. Ivn' (Sveti Ivan, i.e. St. John) written above the illumination in the Croatian Cyrillic script.

A sample of Glagoljski brevijar Vida Omišljanina, written by academician Branko Fučić, has been given as a gift to pope John Paul II on June 5th, 2003 on the occasion of his hundredth apostolic travel, after he landed in Croatia on the Omišalj airport on the island of Krk. Twenty years earlier (1983) the same Pope proclaimed him a knight Commendator of the Order of St Gregory the Great. See [Galović, p. 221].


Bust of Šimun Greblo in front of the church of St. Bartolomej opat in Roč


Roč abecedarium from 1200 in the church of St. Antun opat in Roč


Votive cross in the church of St. Bartol in Roč


The Roč abecedarium incised in the horizontal part of the votive cross.


Left part of the abecedarium. Note that ZELO has a flag oriented on the right, while it is usually oriented to the left.
Also, IŽE, second graphem in the second line, has a triangle.


33 slova hrvatske glagoljičke azbuke u Ročkom abecedariju


Roč missal, 1420. National Library in Vienna.


A lovely detail from the intial of glagolitic V (Vidi) in the Roč missal written around 1420. The Roč missal, kept in the National Library in Vienna, is among the most beautiful Croatian glagolitic books. Source [Badurina: Iluminacije glagoljskih rukopisa u Beču].


Roč Missal writen around 1420 by Bartol Krbavac, source of the photo

 

The Roč missal was written about 1420, and is kept in National Library in Vienna, Codex slav. 4. It has 231 pp of vellum, and one more leaf from 14th century. It contains some additional texts written subsequently by various glagolitic priests in subsequent on its margins.

On leaf 231:

1497. miseca oktebra dan 6. kada ja pop Grgur iz Senji prevezah sie knigi crikvi svetoga Bartolomeja v gradi Roči budući farman tu gospodin Ilija z Bribira i Gospodin Šimun Greblić a starešina Ivan Jelenić crikveni. Bog nam vsim pomagai i vsim pravovernim.

On leaf 131:

1591. va vreme zveličenoga gospodina Paškvala Cigonni duža benetačkoga gospodina Nikoli Korat biskup teržačkoga, gospodina Nikuli Šalamuna kapitana... bje glad velik. Mni mi se po svim svetu... I v tom mesti Roči bje prodana kruha librica za soldini 12, vina žban 20 i mnozi od glada umirahu. Hvala Bogu, ja Ivan Benčić (?) za spomenute pisa.

 

 


The Hum Breviary, a Croatian Glagolitic manuscript from the middle of the 15th century,
kept in the National and University Library (NSK) Zagreb.
Stranica iz Humskog brevijara, polovica 15. st.

The Beram Missal, Bartol Krbavac
Beram Missal of Bartol Krbavac, 1425, kept in the National University of Ljubljana.

 A citizen of Copenhagen, Denmark, can see a Glagolitic abecedarium and a 15th century Croatian Glagolitic Missal in Det Kongelige Bibliotek (Royal Library), called the Copenhagen Missal. It is known that the missal was in the town of Roč in Istria, Croatia. Until 1839 the book in the Royal Library in Vienna, Austria, and this library later donated it as a gift to the Royal Library of Copenhagen.


The Copenhagen Missal, the Royal Library Det Kongelige in Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Many thanks to dr. Mladen Ibler, Denmark, for the photos.

The Copenhagen Missal, Croatian Glagolitic missal from the 15th century, 
kept in the Det Kongelige Bibliothek (Royal Library), Denmark.

 
Hum breviary, 1442, kept in the Metropolitan Library in Zagreb.

 

George d'Esclavonie, Croatian glagolitic priest and professor at Sorbenne in Paris around 1400, wrote the earliest known Croatian glagolitic manual for children by the end of 1390s, kept in the City Library of Tours in France. In his commentaries, speaking about the fact that along the coast, from Senj and Krbava, accross Rab, Osor, Zadar, Nin, Šibenik, and Trogir, to Split, all bishops and archbishops have a unique privilege in Western Christianinty - to use not only Latin Liturgy during the mass, but also the Glagolitic Liturgy. See the list on the document below (on the bottom left).

 

 

 

On the same page he states Istria eadem patria Chrawati, that is, "Istria is a homeland of the Croats", see on the right in the rectangle.

On the first page of the manual he states immediately below the table of the Glagolitic script the following: Istud alphabetum est chrawaticum, that is, "This is Croatian Alphabet."

It is interesting that this document was known to Croatian priest rev. dr. Božo Milanović, and the information about it is mentioned in the Addition to the Memorandum prepared in 1946. for the needs of the International Peace Conference in Paris, which had to decide about the international borders on the territory of Istria (between Italy and ex Yugoslavia) after the WWII. Croatian Glagolitic heritage had extremely important role for the final decision, and probably even decisive role.

 
Missal of Prince Novak (misal kneza Novaka), 1368, kept in the National Library in Vienna (former Royal Libary),
in the Department of valuables and rarities. It was bought in 1405 for Nugla near Roč in Istria. Source of the photo www.stin.hr.

 

One of the most important Croatian Glagolitic books is the Novak Misal or Missal of Prince Novak from 1368.

It was bought from Peter from Krbava ("s Krbave") in 1405 for the church of Sv. Jelena and Sv. Petar in Nugla near the town of Roč, on the north of Istria. It served as a basis for the first Croatian printed book, an incunabulum published in 1483.

Scientific investigations of dr. Marija s. Agnezija Pantelić have shown that the printing type for the first Croatian incunabulum was prepared according to the handwriting of the Novak Missal. The Novak Missal is kept in the National Library in Vienna, Austria, in the Department of rare and valuable books.

Here is the text written by the above mentioned Peter from Krbava in glagolitic quickscript 1405 on a margin of the Novak Missal:

Missal of prince Novak, 1368l. 269 v (prodaja kodeksa u Istri za crkvu sv. Jelene i sv. Petra u Nuglu kod Roča)

Va ime Božje i svete Marije, amen. Let Gospodnih 1405. va vrime gospodina patrijarhi Antona, gospodina i duhovnoga oca svete Marije Oglejske, crikve ki biše domaći gospodin po nature deželi frijulske, kuplene biše ti knigi ot kneza Petra, kneza Novaka sina s Krbave, za 9 zlatih ino 5.

I kupi je dobar muž župan Ivan pridevkom Nirih, sin dobra muža Črnka, i župan Marin pridevkom Mišulin. I v to vrime biše Nirih župan v Nugle i biše obarčin i držitel blaga crikve svete Eleni i svetoga Petra v Nugle. I platista je blagom svete Eleni i svetoga Petra v Nugle.

A sada gospodo redovnici i dijaci ki budete va te knige čtali, prosite milostivoga Gospodina Boga i nega mater Gospoju svetu divu Mariju za duše vse pravoverne hrstjanske, a navlastito za duše vseh onih ki su pustili ko blago malo ali veliko crikve svete Eleni i svetoga Petra v Nugle. I takoe vspomenite v svoih molitvah dušu župana Ivana pridevkom Piriha i dušu župana Marina pridevkom Mišulina ka te knige pripravista v Nuglu v crikav svete Eleni i svetoga Petra kako e zgora rečeno.

In the Novak missalu there is a famous note by Juraj žakan from Roča written in 1482 about preparations to publish the first Croatian incunabulum (the first Croatian printed book) in the following year, i.e. in 1483..

Vita! Vita! Štampa naša gori gre. Tako ja oću da naša gori gre. 1482. meseca ijuna 26. dni to bje pisano v grade Izulje. To pisa Juri žakan iz Roča. Bog mu pomagaj i vsem ki mu dobro ote.

zapis Jurja žakna iz Roča, 1482. (precrt Branka Fučića)

The famous 1482 text of Juraj žakan from Roč at the end of the Novak missal from 1368, written in Glagolitic quickscrip (with smaller characters).

 

Missal of Prince Novak, 1368
Missal of Prince Novak, 1368

Missal of Prince Novak, 1368

Missal of Prince Novak, 1368
Missal of Prince Novak, 1368, kept in the National Library in Vienna, Austria


The first Croatian printed book from 1483 was printed in the Glagolitic script.


Colophon of the 1483 incunabulum on its last page:
Ljet Gospodnih 1483 miseca pe- | rvra dni 22 ti misali biše | svršeni
(AD 1483 in February 22 this missal was completed)

There are only 11 preserved copies of the first Croatian incunabulum. 
Five of them kept in important libraries outside of Croatia, and six in Croatia:

  • The Library of Congress in Washington
  • in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg, withn the famous Berčić Collection
  • in the National Library in Vienna
  • in Apostolic Library in the Vatican (two copies)
  • and in Croatia: five in Zagreb and one in the town of Bol on the island of Brač.

Jedan primjerak hrvatskog prvotiska iz 1483. pronađen je u Ricmanju kod Trsta. Tamošnji ga je župnik negdje između 1882. i 1896. posudio tadašnjem biskupu dr. Ivanu Glavini, no danas ga više nema. Vidi [Radetić, str. 94].

 
The first known incunabula in Croatian Church Slavonic language - editio princeps published in 1483.


Fotografije ljubaznošću Tamare Runjak, prof., Knjižnica HAZU

 

 

As we already mentioned, the glagolitic priest Jurij Žakan inscribed the following Glagolitic quickscript sentence at the end of the the Novak Missal in 1482: Vita vita štampa naša gori gre...! (Vita vita, our printed book advances!). Obviously, this jouful exclamation is related to the progress in publishing the Glagolitic missal, the first Croatian book printed with movable type.

We have to point out that the 1483 Croatian Glagolitic incunabula was printed in one of the most dramatic times in the history of Croatia. Large parts of the country were devastated and occupied by the Turkish Ottoman Empire already in the second half of the 15th century. The borders of the Empire were quite near the Croatian cities of Senj, Zadar, Dubrovnik, Sisak and Zagreb.

Some Croatian scholars believe that the first Croatian incunabla was not only prepared, but also printed somewhere in Istria. Some other scholars think that the book was printed in Venice, while some propose Modruš in Lika. We know that for example the first Croatian printed manual for children was a glagolitic booklet printed in Venice in 1527.

Šimun Greblo from the town of Roč, Croatian glagolitic priest living in Istria at the turn from 15th to 16th century, wrote several books: Kvarezimal, Tlmačenje od muki, Kvadriga duhovnim zakonom. He had a superb handwriting. He also wrote in the Croatian Cyrillic script, and his signature exists where he signed consecutively in the Glagolitic, Cyrillic and Latin scripts.

In Venice there existed a printing house of Andrea Torresani, 15/16th centuries, which had an important role in the early history of printed Croatian glagolitic books. Several glagolitic books have been printed there in this period. It was very difficult for Croatian glagolitic priests to publish books in their homeland, since its large portions were occupied by the Turks. The border with the Turkish Islamic Empire was quite near the cities of Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Senj, Rijeka, Sisak and Zagreb. It was one of the most dramatic periods in the history of Croatia.

 



Godine 1512. pop Šimun Greblo ostavlja zapis na praznoj stranici Misala kneza Novaka  iz 1368.
Misal se čuva u odjelu za rijetkosti Nacionalne knjižnice u Beču (bivše Kraljevske knjižnice).


1512. marča na15. pop Šimun Greblo pisa. Bi morija.


pop Šimun Greblo


Žakan Šimun Greblo, Tlmačenie od Muki, 1493.

Svršeno bi sie tlmačenie od muki Gospoda
našego Isuhrsta miseca marča na dni 5
a od negova roistva tekućih ljet
1493. Az Šimun žakan okožih
i ispisah sie tlmačenie v Roče i ja
rodom iz Roča. Bog s nami.
Isus nazaranin cesar judejiski. (zrcalno!)



Šimun Greblo, Kvarezimal, kept in the National and University Library in Zagreb
Šimun Greblo had a beautiful handwriting. The above text, above the plaster, is written in Croatian Glagolitic quickscript,
while below it his handwriting in Croatian Cyrillic.


Spomenik Šimunu Greblu u Roču

Šimun Greblo (15./16. st.) i Filip Cvitić (20./21. st.), Roč


Beautiful handwriting of Šimun Greblo from the town of Roč, Tlmačenje Muke Isusove, kept in the National Library in Viena, Austria. Source of the photo [Zaradija-Kiš, Šimun Greblo...].

Here is a remain of severly damaged Croatian Glagolitic missal from 15th century, kept in the University Library in Pula:

glagoljski rukopis iz 15. st.(?)
Dr. Marica Čunčić: Pulski odlomak glagoljskoga misala iz 15. st.

 

 

Frane Paro, professor at the Academy of Arts in Zagreb, organized the exhibition of glagolitic printing in the town of Roč.

The Draguć breviary from 1407 is kept in the Archives of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (HAZU). It originates probably from Krbava, and was in use in Istria, in Roc and Hum.

The Beram breviary is in Ljubljana, in the National and University of Ljubljana. The book was written by glagolitic scribe and calligrapher Bartol from Krbava. His name indicates that he originated from Krbava, which once was a region with strong glagolitic tradition. It is known that Bartol from Krbava sojourned in Istria

A bust of Šimun Greblo from Roč, a writer from 15-16th centuries, can be seen the town of Roč. 

In Roč there is a bust of žakan Juraj, who was the messanger of the first Croatian printed book.

Croatian protestants: Stipan Konzul, Anton Dalmatin, Tabla za dicu, Novi testament, 1561...Croatian Croatian Protestants Stipan Konzul Istranin (Istranin = of Istria, in Croatian). His collaborator was Anton Dalmatin who served as a glagolitic priest also in Istria. Some of the books printed in all three scripts in use in Croatia (Latin, Glagolitic and Cyrillic Scripts) were

  • Prvi i Drugi del Novoga testamenta (Tubinga, Germany, 1561)
  • Postila
  • Katekizam, jedna malahna kniga
  • Tabla za dicu
  • Vsih prorok stumačenje hrvatsko (= "Croatian description of all prophets")

Damir Viškanić published his book Zapisi kapitula lovranskog, dealing with church records in this Istrian town, mainly in 17th and 18th centuries. It is interesting that a Catholic priest from Slovenia, empleyed in Lovran, decided to take the records with him to Ljubljana in 1920s, in order to be safe from Italian Fascists. The book is still in Ljubljana. It is lovely to see for example several notes written in the Glagolitic script about famous Lovran chestnuts ("maroni"). Unfortunately, the author of the book Damir Viškanić died a year before the book has been published in 2002. Damir Viškanić also studied the Brseč church records and inscriptions written in the Glagolitic script.

 

 

Plominski natpis (11. st.; prema dr. Marici Čunčić iz 10. st., također i prema akademiku Branku Fučiću, kao što spominje akademik Anica Nazor):


Izvornik Plominskog natpisa u crkvici sv. Jurja "starog";  fotografirao Mladen Žubrinić 2013.

Plominski natpis prema [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi]

Se e pis's' S' (tj. "Se je pisal S", tj. "Ovo je pisao S")


Gore kopija Plominskog natpisa na izvornom mjestu, dolje Fučićeva rekonstrukcija
Plomin tablet, 11th century
Plomin inscription, 10th or 11th century. Photo of the copy of the monument kept at the permanent exhibition "Izložba glagoljice" (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script) in the building of Sveučilišna knjižnica near Korzo in Rijeka, address Dolac 1, tel +385 51 336 901. The permanent exhibition has been organized by Vanda Ekl, Igor Emili, and Branko Fučić.

Gore izvornik, dolje Fučićeva rekonstrukcija Plominskog natpisa
Plomin tablet, 11th century
Sadržaj Plominskog natpisa je vrlo kratatk:

Se e pisl' s'

Iako je Plominski natpis bio poznat već 1850. g., kada ga je precrtao M. Sabljar, a objavljen je 1863. i u Acta croatica Ivana Kukuljevića Skacinskog, Branko Fučić ponovno pronalazi taj natpis 1949. skriven ispod osinjaka. To bi mogao biti razlog zašto je spomenik ostao neprimijećen i netaknut tijekom talijanske okupacije Istre od 1919. do 1943.


View to the town of Plomin. Many thanks to Mirna Brkanović for these two very nice photos.

 


Grdoselski odlomak, above, from Grdo Selo in Istria, 12th century. 
Source of the photo www.vinodol.org .

Grdoselo fragment, 12th century, kept in the parish church of Sv. Marija od Zdravlja


Supetar fragment, 12th century (Supetarski odlomak: AMEN' YJAKOV'; Y = Iže) 
has been found in the convent in Sv. Petar u Šumi in Istra.

 

Humski grafiti, 12. st.
Hum graffito (Humski grafit) from the town of Hum, Istria, dates from 12th century. 
It says the following: "For Martin the blacksmith 30 masses have been told".

Branko Fućić, Glagoljski natpisi, p. 199: 

Po svom sadržaju "Humski grafit" je evidencija nepoznatog humskog popa glagoljaša, uparana šiljkom na oslikani zid u blizini oltara, o celebriranim takozvanim gregorijanskim misama. Nakon svake, uzastopce kroz 30 dana, odslužene mise glagoljaš je uparao u zid po jedan rovaš, a na kraju je zabilježio da je za dušu pokojnog kovača Martina izrekao ukupno gregorijanski niz misa i da je povrh toga niza preuzeo da odsluži na istu nakanu još jednu misu ("e vzeta" = intentio accepta).

 

Votive cross in the church of Sv. Antun opat i pustinjak in Roč, where the glagolitic abecedarium is inscribed.

The Roč Glagolitic Abecedarium (Ročki glagoljski abecedarij) has been found in the church of Sv. Antun opat i pustinjak. It dates from about 1200. See Ročki glagoljski abecedarij by Branko Fučić. The above drawing is by Branko Fučić.


Hum, interior of the church of St. Jerome (sv. Jeronim), full of Middle Age fresocs and many Croatian Glagolitic graphittis.

Academician Josip Bratulić describing valuable frescos discovered by academician Branko Fučić

Croatian Glagolitic graphittis

Draguć graffito (Dragućki grafit) is a glagolitic inscription found in the church of St. Elizej in the town of Draguć. It dates from 13th/14th centuries. See Branko Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, p. 132.

Kožljačko - Mošćenički razvod (Istra), 1395:

Kožljačko - mošćenički razvod (Istra), 1395.

Grdoselo, a small village in Istria, with the parish church of Sv. Marija od Zdravlja

Very nice pulpit in the Grdoselo parish church in the form of the glagolitic S (Slovo)
Beautiful stone altar in Grdoselo, in the form of the glagolitic letter G (Glagole). Probably unique in Croatia (and in the world).
On the left is the pulpit in the form of glagolitic S, and above it (top left) the famous Grdoselo fragment from 12th century.
Many thanks to the gentleman who opened us the church.

We know of four city statutes in Croatia originally written in the Glagolitic Script. Three of them are from Istria:

  • the Kastav Statute (1490, near Rijeka), preserved in Latin, transliterated from the Glagolitic Script,
  • Mošćenica Statute (~1501, Istria), preserved in Latin, transliterated from the Glagolitic Script,
  • the Veprinac Statute (1507, Istria), preserved in the Glagolitic.

The fourth one is the Vrbnik statute from the island of Krk.

 


Wall drawing with Croatian Glagolitic characters in red ink from 15th century,
in the church of Sv. Trojice (Holy Trinity) in Kastav near Rijeka. Source: [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, Kastav].

 
Darko Deković (napisao opsežno djelo o gradu Rijecu kao glagoljaškom kaštelu), Kastav, 2007., u ulici Zakona kastafskega


Opis crkve sv. Trojice u Kastvu desno od ulaza.

Postoji oporuka koju je kurzivnom glagoljicom pisao kastavski notar Ivan Pavlinić 1625. godine.

 

Two Beram breviaries from Istria are kept in National and University Library in Ljubljana. They date from 14th century and contain many subsequent inscriptions written on margins of the book in Glagolitic quickscript, concerning the history of Istria. The name of "Ljubljana breviaries" also appears.

Draguć breviary, 1407 (Arhiv HAZU),

Hum breviary from the town of Hum, Istria, 1442, see above.

Frašćić psalter (Frašćićev psaltir) from 1463., writen on 131 leaves on paper and vellum, 13.5 x 20 cm. It was written by a priest Petar Frašćoć from Lindar, near the town of Pazin in Istria. The book is kept in the National Library in Vienna.

It is expressly called "psalter hrvatski" (i.e. "Croatian psalter") in the book. Written by Petar Fraščić from Lindar (near Pazin), it has 132 leaves of paper and vellum, and is kept in the Austrian National Library in Vienna (Codex slav. sign 77).

On leaf 130 we find the following text:

Va ime Božje i svete Marije i vsih svetih Božjih, amen.

Ljet Gospodnjih 1463. to pisa pop Petar i grišni pridevkom Fraščić komu je zemlja mat a otačastvo grob a bogatstvo grisi. I kada je pisah i nje kada bih v mišlenju da me misal prehajaše zač mlad bjeh i pročaja i pisah je v Lindare [u Istri] sedeći. I v to isto leto biše v Istri malo žita i gladno biše i ja dovole krat lačan [gladan] bih. I zato vas prosim bratija draga ki koli bude čtel sie knigi ako bim se kdje premrsil [zabunio] prosim vas ne proklnite me na [nego] recite: ako si živ Bog ti otpusti grihi, ako si mrtav Bog ti primi dušu v pokoj vječni. I spisah je godinu pre Mati Kubodskemu plovanu v to vrime počtenomu mužu rozumnomu. I on me plati i darova kako dobar muž i k tomu mi pomore s velike moje nevolje v koj ja bih. Bog mu plati. To pisa ruka grišna. To je tlk psaltira. Bog s nami, amen.

On leaf 130 r, there is the colophon of (the final note) by Petar Fraščić, and under it

Tumačenie saltira
hrvackoga

that is,

Description of the Croatian psalter

Tumačenie saltira hrvackoga

On p. 131 there is the following text written on the margin in Glagolitic quickscript:

I ta milježm zgora rečeni i pisani bje pisan 10ti dan prvo neže pridoše kneza Ivana ljudi pljenat Istri. I popljeniše Boljun i Vran i Brest i vse pod Učku. I pridoše ot Pazina ljudi i hotjehu otet ta isti plijen. I pobiše kneza Ivana ljudi vele zlo. I bje ih mrtvo da i 18 i 70 ljudi ranjenih da i 70. A Ćić kneza Ivana 20 ino 8. I to bje ta boj stvoren na svetoga Fabijana i Šebastijana dan miseca jenvara let gospodnjih 1463. Bog s nami, amen.

The introduction to the Frašćić psalter was published by a well known Croatian linguist Josip Hamm in Vienna in 1967.

Pazin fragments are the remains of larger glagolitic miscellany from the 14th century.

Kvarezimal i tlmačenje Šimuna Grebla iz Roča (Istria), 1493 and 1498

Croatian Glagolitic legend about St. Mauro (+284 in Rome), written in the beginning of 15th century in Istria, is a part of the famous Berčić collection, kept in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg, Russia, one of the largest libraries in the world.

Žgombić Miscellany, kept in the Archives of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, was created in the 16th century most probably in the region of the town of Roč. It contains the Croatian Lucidarium (Hrvatski lucidarij), a Middle Age encyclopaedia. Such a Lucidarium appears also in the Petris Miscellany.

Gršković Miscellany, 16th century, probably from Istria

Glagoljske isprave iz Brseča, Istria, 16th and 17th ct., for example Brsečka glagoljska oporuka from 1586.

Statut grada Mošćenice (Istria), 1673.g.

Razgovor od vetra i dažda..., pop Antun Brzac, Istria and Primorje, 17/18th ct.

Istrian glagolitic tradition is deeply related to that of the region of Lika:

  • in Istrian town Medulin there is a glagolitic graffiti To pisa pop Marko Dabran (ie. from Dabar in Lika), see [Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi, p. 245].
  • in the town of Barban in Istria, in the church of Sv. Antun Opat there is the following Glagolitic graffiti: To pisa pop Vid s(i)n' Pavlov' z Like 1453, see [Fučić, p. 35];
  • Paz in Istria, has a graffiti mentioning plovan Andrij iz Bužan, 1461;
  • in Draguć and Hum, in 1529 and 1537, pop Andrij iz Bužan,
  • in the glagolitic minutes from the town of Hum in Istria (1618.-1672.) in the baptismal book we can find 32 second names of Ličanin and 2 of Ličanica. See [Vlahov], "Još jedna glagoljska matica iz Huma," pp. 174-175.

The towns of Roč i Hum deserve to be seen when you visit the Istrian peninsula, together with other lovely mediaeval Croatian towns with preserved glagolitic inscriptions, like Draguć, Beram, Boljun, Lovran etc.

 

 

Glagoljski natpis u Humu
Glagolitic inscription in Hum


Two old Croatian glagolitic inscriptions near the main entrance to Hum, destroyed by hammer by Italian irredentists.

Branko Fučić
Academician Branko Fučić


Pismo akademika Branka Fučića kolegi u Slovačku

Rijeka, 13. II. 1996.

Dragi neobični čovječe!

Dugo je Vaše pismo – cijela Vaša biografija.

Drago mi je da ste se u Slovačkoj snašli, da Vam je dobro, da imate kreativno zvanje i da Vas k tome oživljuju i Vaši hobby-ji.
Ja sam sada bolesnik i starac (rodjen sam 1920.). Po struci sam historičar umjetnosti i kulture. U životu nisam radio ništa što mi ujedno ne bi bio i hobby. Bio sam terenski istraživač, uvijek pješak. Sad me noge već ne nose.

Vaša glagoljica – to je sve arhivski materijal iz Veprinca. Veprinac vidim svaki dan s moje terase ili s prozora: minijaturni grad u masivu Učke, iznad Opatije.

Kuda se je sve po svijetu rasipala veprinačka glagoljaška baština? Najmanje je ima kod župnika u samom Veprincu. Znatan dio je u Zagrebu (Arhiv Hrvatske akademije, Državni arhiv Hrvatske), a sada ste i Vi vlasnik jednog dijela koji je dospio u Slovačku.

Sve što ste mi u xeroxima poslali napisano je glagoljskim kurzivom u XVII. stoljeću (...). Što da učinite s arhivalijama? Morate odlučiti sam. U svakom slučaju mislim da Vašu glagoljsku gradju treba publicirati. A gdje? Čini mi se da bi to bilo najbolje u »SLOVO« Staroslavenskog zavoda u Zagrebu.
S njima morate kontaktirati. Prijaviti im nalaz. Navesti podatke, u prvom redu količinu glagoljskih isprava.

Evo Vam njihove adrese: STAROSLAVENSKI ZAVOD, Demetrova 11, 10 000 Zagreb (Hrvatska, Croatia), tel. (01) 272-957, (01) 278-684. Direktorica Zavoda je akademik Anica Nazor. Čitate li glagoljicu? Glagoljski kurziv? Ako ne znate, naučite. To nije ni nemoguće a ni teško. Sami izvršite transliteraciju na latinicu i objavite.

Srdačno Vas pozdravlja Branko Fučić

Izvor dr. Tomislav Galović: Uvodna riječ na otvorenju skupa, u Az grišni diak Branko pridivkom Fučić, str. 24.

A letter of academician Branko Fučić to a colleague Slovakia

Rijeka, 2/13 1996

My dear unusual man!

Your letter is long indeed – your entire biography.

I am very glad that you have settled well in Slovakia that you have been doing well, that you have a creative vocation and that your hobbies keep you lively. I am now an old and sick man (I was born in 1920). I am a historian of art and culture, and I have not done anything in my life which was not my hobby at the same time. I was a field researcher, always walking. Now my legs cannot carry me anymore.

Your Glagolitic script – it is all an archive material from Veprinac. I see Veprinac every day from my terrace or from my window: a miniature town in the mountain massif of Učka, above Opatija.

Where in the world has Veprinac Glagolitic heritage been scattered? The smallest part is with parish priests in Veprinac. The significant part is in Zagreb in Croatian Academy Archives and Croatian State Archives) and now You own the part which found its way to Slovakia.

Every xeroxed document that you have sent was written in Glagolitic cursive in the 17 century (...). What to do with the archival material? You have to decide for yourself. In any case, I think that your Glagolitic material must be published. But where? I think it would be best appreciated in “SLOVO” by the Old Church Slavonic Institute in Zagreb. You need to contact them. Report your findings. Tell them your data, first of all the number of Glagolitic
documents.

This is their address: OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC INSTITUTE, Demetrova 11, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia), phone (01) 272-957, (01) 278-684. The head of the institute is the member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts Anica Nazor.

Can you read Glagolitic script? Glagolitic cursive? If you cannot, then learn it. It is neither impossible nor difficult. Do the transliteration to Latin script and publish it.

Best regards,

Branko Fučić

Izvor Tomislav Galović, PhD: Introductory Remarks and Conference Opening, in I, the Errent Pupil Branko, Surnamed Fučić, p. 28.



Croatian Glagoliti inscription from Kožljak in Istria from 1590. (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


A vellum leaf from Beram Glagolitic Missal from 1425 serving as a wrapping of a book. 
(Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


Croatian Glagolitic inscription from 1470 from Gažun in Slovenian part of Istria. 
(Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


Grdo Selo Chronicle (Grodselska kronika) monograph by Branko Fučić.

Hum grafitto:


Kovača Martina je vse 30, je vzeta ino jošće jedna (reconstruction by Branko Fučić)
important Croatian Glagolitic inscription from Hum in Istria from12th century, containing very old Croatian glagolitic graphems.
The inscription was found the church of Sv. Jeronim near Hum (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


Croatian Glagolitic in honor of Gašpar Bekarić in Lovran in 1595. in the churhc of St. Trinity 
(Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)

1595. Gašpar Bekarić, plovan lovranski tu leži.


Church of St. Trinity in Lovran

Crkvica sv. Trojstva u Lovranu


Plomin Glagolitic inscription from 1499, hardly visible on the bottom part, in the parish church of Sv. Juraj in Plomin..
The inscription was destroyed in 1921, during the Italian occupation of Istria, 1919-1943. (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


Croatian Glagolitic inscription in Žaj Šumber in Istria from 1595. (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)


A fresco in Beram in Istria. (Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)

 

 

Some of important Crotian glagolitic monuments have been destroyed by Italian irredenta, especially in the period of Italian occupation between 1919 and 1943. In Istria various glagolitic inscriptions were destroyed with sledge and chisel:

  • in Lindar (near Pazin), on the cemetery in Motovun ,
  • in the parish church of St. Juraj in Plomin, see above,
  • on the Sovinjak belltower, see below,
  • in the Church of St. Antun in Vrh,
  • three glagolitic monuments in Hum (one of them at the very entrance, left of the city gates),

and other, see [Žgaljić] p. 39. During the Italian occupation of islands of Lošinj and Cres the last Glagolitic priest was Frane Krivičić from Valun. In 1930 the Glagolitic mass was still served in several places on the island of Cres, but in secret. See [Milanovic, pp 88-89].

Important book for understanding the history of Croatian Glagolitic Culture in Istria is [Kirac], completed in 1928, and published only posthumously in 1946, reprinted in 1990. On page 233 it is mentioned that some Glagolitic inscriptions on belltowers in Sovinjak, Lindar (near Pazin), and on the Motovun cemetery have been destroyed during the Italian Fascist rule in Istria. On p. 235 don Luka Kirac mentions numerous Croatian Glagolitic missals and breviaries that dissappeared from Istria.


Luka Kirac rođen je u Medulinu 1860. godine. Nakon školovanja bio je kapelan pa župnik u nizu mjesta u Poreštini i Puljštini. Godine 1908. postao je zastupnik Sabora u Poreču. Kao veliki Hrvat borio se za buđenje hrvatstva u Istri, ali i njihova prava. Zbog toga dolazi u nemilost istarskih talijanaša te je već početkom I svjetskog rata u dva navrata prognan iz Istre. Godine 1919. dolaskom Talijana na vlast u Istri čak je neko vrijeme proveo u zatvoru. Na koncu su ga poslali u Rakotule, malo mjesto pokraj Karojbe gdje je bio župnik u razdoblju od 1921.-1931. No kakav župnik! Župnik s ograničenim kretanjem, župnik kod kojega se svako toliko radila premetačina. I konačno - župnik kojeg su ljudi iz Rakotula voljeli i kada god je trebalo skrivali ga i branili pred Talijanima. Don Luka Kirac je umro 1931. u Rakotulama i tek tada je vraćen u svoj Medulin.

U svojoj knjizi "Istarski puti" spominje ga i Franjo Horvat Kiš koji ga je posjetio u Medulinu i, u fazi zatiranja hrvatstva po istri, ostao oduševljen njegovim entuzijazmom i ljubavlju prema Istri i hrvatskom narodu. Uz ostale obaveze don Luka Kirac istraživao je povijest, zapisivao narodne predaje, vršljao po arhivima, kopao po ostacima kaštela i gradina i ...pisao.

Njegova poznata knjiga je "Crtice iz istarske povijesti", koju je završio pisati u Rakotulama 1928. godine. Nastajala je godinama, i godinama je rukopis don Luka Kirac skrivao pred Talijanima. Na koncu je rukopis predao Viktoru Caru Eminu i vrlo vjerojatno je zato rukopis i spašen. Prvi put je knjigu izdao Nakladni zavod Hrvatske 1946. godine

Izvor swirl.bloger.hr


Niko Žic (Nikola Žic 1882.-1960) je 1919. sudjelovao u prikupljanju i objavljivanju materijala da je Istra hrvatska. Vidi [Znameniti i zaslužni Hrvati, pod Žic Niko, str. 297]. Zajedno s Vladimirom Nazorom, Matom Tentorom i Vjekoslavom Spinčićem priredio je Spomenicu istarskih Jugoslavena (sic!) za Mirovni kongres u Parizu, objavljenu godine 1919. Bio je suradnik u znamenitoj Hrvatskoj enciklopediji dr. Mate Ujevića.


Memorial tablet of don Luka Kirac (1860-1931) in his native town of Medulin,
a famous Croatian priest in Istria. Photo from swirl.bloger.hr .


Don Luka Kirac (1860-1931)


Glagolitic inscription in Sovinjak from 1557, Istria, destroyed in 1921 during Italian occupation,
rebuilt in 1966. Photo from swirl.bloger.hr.

The role of Croatian Glagolitic monuments in the decision of winning forces after the WW2
about the political destiny of the territory of Istria




Hum, Croatian Glagolitic inscription from 1552 on western part of belltower.
The monument has been devastated in 1921 during the Italian occupation of Istria (1919-1943).
Reconstruction by Branko Fučić:

1552., miseca marča na dan 16, va vrime župana ... Gržinića. Meštra ... Bastijančić
z Draguća ... pop Ivan (Cvitić)


Hum, the smallest town in the world (about 20 inhabitants), with two streets, two churches, city walls, and Croatian Glagolitic monumnets.


Hum 1562, devastateded monument
reconstructed by Branko Fučić, see Glagoljski natpisi.


Hum, destroyed Glagolitic inscription from 1562 above the main entrance to Hum, 

1562., miseca avgusta, dana 22, vrime župana Andreja Malinarića i pročie muži 


A street in Hum in 2010, attended by members of 
Društvo prijatelja glagoljice - Scripturae glagoliticae amicorum societas, Zagreb


Hum 1609, Croatian Glagolitic monument devastated during the Italian 1919-1943 occupation of Istria.


Hum, inscription on the parish church of Sv. Marija, March 13th, 1609.
Reconstruction by Branko Fučić:

Va ime Božje, amen.Let Godpodnjih 1609, miseca aprila 13, be osnovana sija crikav va vrime
pre Mateja Benca tr župana i starešina Martina Gršinića. Oršin, biskup tršački i meštar Juri Gršinić.

The first Croatian primer for children, 1527.The following book might also be related to Croatian Glagolitic culture in Istria. In the Pierpont Library in New York there is a 1527 copy of the oldest known Croatian printed manual for children, printed in Venice in the Croatian Glagolitic script, in the printing house of a well known Venetian master Andrea Torresani. The manual has 14 pages. Another complete copy is at Harvard University Haughton Library in Cambridge MA, USA. Three additional preserved copies are in Vienna (National Library), Oxford (Bodleian Library) and St. Petersburg (State Library). There exists the sixth copy which appeared in 2006 at an auction in the USA. It was sold for 35,000 USD (infromation by mr. Ivo Dubravcic, Delft, the Netherlands). Since 2007 this booklet is in possession of the National and University Library, Zagreb, Croatia. It is known that in 1933 this copy was in Dresden, Germany. Below you can see the colophon of the first Croatian primer for children: Stampani v Bene / tcih po Andr / ei Torežani / iz Ažu / le / 1527. Click on the photo to see the corresponding part in Italian. Altogether 7 copies of the first Croatian printed manual for children are known today. This book represents a very nice connection between Croatian and Italian culture, in a dramatic historical moment for Croatia (15t-16th century), when the border with the Turkish Ottoman empire was very close to the cities of Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Šibenik, Senj, Sisak, and Zagreb. Due to extremely dramatic situation, it was impossible to secure safe printing in Croatia itself. Despite this, the Croatian Glagolitic priests were capable to organize and finance prinitng in Venice, which was spared from destruction. The first Croatian incunabula printed in Croatian Church-Slavonic was published already in 1483, only 28 years after Gutenberg's Bible. Furthermore, it was the first ever Catholic Missal printed in a script other than Latin.


Colophon of the first Croatian primer for children, 1527.

On the above photo is the Croatian Glagolitic colophon mentioning the following: printed in Venice by Andrea Torresani from Ausla in 1527 (stampani v Benetcih po Andrei Torežani iz Ažule, 1527). You can see raughly the same text in Latin language and Latin Script, with Torresani's printing sign AT in the middle, printed in red.


Hum, stone holders of a cross


Hum, Croatian glagolitic inscription from 1545 on the stone table below loge 
(1545, in the time of župan Grgur Baksić), see 
Branko Fučić, Glagoljski natpisi.


Hum graffitos in the church of are from 12th to 15th centuries.


Humski triptih s glagoljčkim zapisom 
(Exhibition of Glagolitic Script, Rijeka)

V Hrstovo ime, amen. Let rojstva togoje 1529., miseca sktebra dan 20., bi svršena ta figura v Humi na slavu Gospodinu Bogu i svetomu Jerolimu po meštri Antoni s Padove (danas Kašćerga). I v to vrime biše v Humi plovan, gospodin Ivan Pečanić rodom iz ...ate. I v to let pokriše crikav sv. Jerolima i učiniše(?) figuru na antar svetoga Antona... i mali zvon postaviše i veće dobra stvoriše zač bihu v Humi muži dobri Juraj Gržinić i njega podžup Grgur Bakšić i ostali dobri muži. I v to vrime car Selimbeg zauja ugrsku zemlju i biše po vsemu svitu rat, nevera, neljubav, himba, užura. I to zapisah ja, pop Andrij Prašić rodom iz Bužan.


A detail from the Hum triptich, with a text written in nice glagolitic quickscript from 1529. The Hum Triptich was created in 1529 and originally placed in the church of Sv. Jeronim in Hum, now in Pazin. For more details see here.


Monument to deacon Juraj (Vita, vita, štampa naša gori gre...! 1482) in Roč.


Hum breviary from 1442, kept in the National and University Library in Zagreb


Glagolitic inscription about building bell tower in the town of Hum from 1470.

 

Na zapadnom zidu humskog zvonika - kule nalazio se kamen s glagoljskim natpisom. Natpis je uništen 1921. kada su se njime "pozabavili" fašisti iz Buzeta. Kopija tog natpisa danas je u prizemlju Polače (gradske palače koju vidite na slici, a kroz koju vode gradska vrata u Hum). Tekst glasi:

"1552, miseca marča na dan 16, va vrime župana... Gržinića. Meštar... Baštijančić iz Draguća... Pop Ivan Cvitić".

Što nebrigom, a što namjerno, dio humskih glagoljaških zapisa (osim ovog) je isto uništen. Osim humskog grafita u crkvici na groblju nalazi se oko 40 grafita. Osim natpisa na zvoniku, ista "ekipa" fašista iz Buzeta uništila je 1921. još dva glagoljaška natpisa, ali su i oni kasnije rekonstruirani i kopije se nalaze u prizemlju Polače.

Hum je poput Roča bio centar glagoljice, a neki su njegovi stanovnici glagoljicu koristili još početkom 20.st. Izvor: swirl.bloger.hr

 


Draguć
 
Draguć, glagoljički natpis iz 1529. na freski majstora Antuna iz Padove (danas Kašćerge). Izložba hrvatske glagoljice u Rijeci. 

V Hrstovo ime, amen. Let rojstva togoje 1529., miseca sktebra dan 20., bi svršena ta figura v Humi na slavu Gospodinu Bogu i svetomu Jerolimu po meštri Antoni s Padove (danas Kašćerga). I v to vrime biše v Humi plovan, gospodin Ivan Pečanić rodom iz ...ate. I v to let pokriše crikav sv. Jerolima i učiniše(?) figuru na antar svetoga Antona... i mali zvon postaviše i veće dobra stvoriše zač bihu v Humi muži dobri Juraj Gržinić i njega podžup Grgur Bakšić i ostali dobri muži. I v to vrime car Selimbeg zauja ugrsku zemlju i biše po vsemu svitu rat, nevera, neljubav, himba, užura. I to zapisah ja, pop Andrij Prašić rodom iz Bužan.


Paz, 1461,

Let Gospodinjih 1461. i bi ta figura pisana va vrime gospodina Jurja Pazara i njegova kapelana Andrija z Bužan. To dela mojstr Albert miseca oktombra. I v to virme biše župan Vitko.


Predloka, slovenski dio Istre. Kustodija je izvorno bila polikromirana i pozlaćena.

Let Gospodnjh 1466. Va to vrime, v ko biše gospodin pre Mihel plovan i gospodin Vid Sučerge farman, 
to stvori mojstr Benko (s) Sučerge.


...ko Sučer(ge)


The 1492 glagolitic inscription on the grave of Martin Mojsejević in the chapel of sv. Henrik u Dvoru in the town of Belaj.


Boljun, natpis iz godine 1590. o gradnji svetišta u župnoj crkvi sv. Jurja. (Muzej glagoljice u Rijeci).
Boljun, inscription from the year 1590, about the construction of the sanctuary in the church of St. Juraj (St. Georege)

Veprinac


Veprinac

Veprinac, 1574,

Veprinac, godina 1597.


Veprinac, 1555.


Zamask, kustodija iz 1576. Kopija na Izložbi glagoljice u Sveučilišnoj knjižnici u Rijeci.
1576. Pop Lovrenc Br...ić, Martin Jenetić.


Bačva, 1581. (kopija na Izložbi glagoljice u Sveučilišnoj knjižnici Rijeci)
1581. miseca jenvara na 22. preminu gospodin pre Stepen Deković, plovan bačvanski, kemu je grob plaća a grehi otajanstvo i va ta grob da se nima pokop nidan (ni jedan) mundani (svjetovni) i duhovan, razve ako bi ki redovnik bil od parte (roda) Deković, zač bi za ne pal grob na špendije (troškove) bivšega Stepana.



Borut, 1560. Kopija na Izložbi glagoljice u zgradi Sveučilišne knjižnice u Rijeci.
1560., avrila dan 30., v vrime gospodina Adama... a. Ja Vid Vitulović ordinavam mojim sinom i po njih semrti momu redu da guvernaju tu crekav i oltar svete Marije ka je v crekvi svetoga Mihovila, a to ki bude držal moje blago. Bi meštar Juri Švorc i Toma Larutin z Goric. I v to vrime biše pr(e) Antun Kurelić plovan borutski.

The village of Kršikla in Istria (some ten km NW from the town of Pazin) is in possession of Glagolitic epitaph of the village joupan from 1582 (see the description in Slov. (!) or na Engl.):

Kršikla u Istri, 1582
Kršikla, glagolitic epitaph iz 1582.

The Zrenj glagolitic inscription from 16th century has been lost in the 19th century, but it content is known:

Č.F.O.B. (1582) MAJA
NA DAN. IA (21) KADA BJE
TO NAČINENO VA VRIME ŽU-
PANA TONINE RIPA SIE
PI(SA) H' JA IVAN ŠTOKOVIĆ

 

It informs us about a work going on the parish church in Zrenj. See Branko Fučić's article Glagoljski natpis 16. st. iz Zrenja, for more information.

 

Kvaderna bratovštine svetog Bartula i knjiga računa općine Roč svezak je izvoda iz godišnjih računa nastalih između 1523. i 1628. godine, uz manji broj zapisa koji se odnose na još ranije godine. Uvezan rukopis ima više od 270 listova, odnosno oko 550 stranica. Original se čuva u Arhivu HAZU, kamo ga je pohranio I. Kukuljević još u 19. stoljeću. Izvor Zdenko Balog: Kvaderna iz Roča.

Evo još nekih izvora za proučavanje hrvatske galgoljske baštine u Istri:

  • Knjiga računa bratovštine (crkve) i općine
    Roč u Istri
    , 1526-1611. i 1566-1628.
  • Knjiga (kvadirna) bratovštine sv. Antuna u Zabrešcu (dolina kraj Trsta)
    1548 (1520)-1642.
  • Baptismal book (Matična knjiga krštenih) of the Vodnjan parish contains 180 minutes written in the Glagolitic script dating from 1556-1583.
  • Boljun glagolitic handwritings and the Boljun chronicle were written in the period between 1583 and 1668.
  • Registar (urbar) crkve sv. Antuna u Šrenemoli-Mačkovljanima (sjeverozapadna Istra),
    1587-1651.
  • Knjiga crkve (bratovštine) sv. Ivana u Boljuncu kod Trsta, 1576-1672.
  • Knjiga bratovštine (crkve) sv. Roka u Boljuncu blizu Trsta, 1603-1688.
  • Odlomak knjige bratovštine sv. Mikule u Boljunu, 1583-1623 i 1662-1666.
  • Računi "Od dot crkvenih" Boljuna, 1595-1660.
  • Knjiga bratovštine sv. Roka (sv. Katarine i sv. Blaža) u Boljunu, 1595-1663.
  • Dio knjige bratovštine sv. Tijela u Boljunu 1612-1658.
  • Kvaderna bratovštine oltara sv. Mikule u Boljunu, 16. i 17. st.
  • Matična knjiga rođenih, vjenčanih i umrlih iz Vranje u Istri, 1607.-1727.
  • Matične knjige iz Materade (Istra), 18. st.
  • Testament Jelene, sestre Petra Kružića, iz godine 1541. pisan u Lupoglavu (Istra)



Akademijin brevijar (dio brevijara), čuva se u  Arhivu HAZU u Zagrebu (signatura III c 12), a pisan je negdje u Istri. Ima 70 listova, tj. 140 str.

 

 

 


Kvaderna iz Roča, 1523-1628. Source Zdenko Balog: Kvaderna iz Roča

Some Glagolitic graffiti are important for our knowledge of the outbreaks of epidemics in past centuries. So in the town of Lovran there is a graffito from 1558 mentioning "a sudden death" in which 50 people died in a single day. In Pazin in 1557, an epidemic ("morija") appeared, mentioned in another glagolitic graffito. See [Fatović-Ferenčić, Duerrigl].

Za povijest Istre važan je franjevac glagoljaš Franjo Glavinić (1580.-1650.), rođen u Kanfanaru. Kako je on sam zabilježio, roditelji su ga iz Glamoča u kolijevci prenijeli u Istru, bježeći pred progonima Turaka, da sačuvaju svoju katoličku vjeru. Glavinić je u Istri postao franjevac i tri puta bio je provincijalnim starješinom franjevačke provincije "Hrvatske Bosne".

www.cel.hr/kanfanar/licnosti.htm
Franjo Glavinić

U svojim tiskanim djelima Glavinić naglasuje, da piše hrvatskim jezikom, kojim se on ponosi i na njegovu slavu piše. U svom djelu Svitlost duše verne, tiskanom u Mlecima g. 1632 Glavinić kaže, da ga je napisao: "za ugoditi bratji i vernim, a navlastito hervatskomu jeziku ". Prvo Glavinića djelo tiskano na hrvatskom jeziku nosi naslov "Czvit szvetih, t.j. sivot szvetih itd. prenessen i szlosen na Harvatszki jezik", u Mletcima 1628. To je djelo Glavinić posvetio hrvatskomu knezu Vuku Krsti Frankopanu, za kojega kaže: "Inter nostrae nationis Proceres nemini secundus" = među velikašima našega naroda, koji ne zaostaje za nikim. Glaviniću, rođenu u Bosni, Vuk Krsto Frankopan, član stare hrvatske plemićke obitelji iz Hrvatskoga Primorja, jest velikaš "našega naroda". Tim on ispovijeda, da su i on i njegovi Bošnjaci jedan te isti narod sa svim Hrvatima u ostalim hrvatskim zemljama. Izvor: www.hercegbosna.org . Vidi također Darko Deković, Glagoljički prijepis Glavinićeve "Szvitloszti..." iz 1762., Zbornik radova o Franji Glavinicu, JAZU, Zagreb, 1989.

 

Stipan Konzul Istranin, a glagolitic priest from Pazin, translated into Croatian some Protestant books together with Antun Dalmatin from Senj. They prepared the New Testament in two parts, in 1562 and 1563, printed with Glagolitic characters in Urach in Germany.

Prema [Radetiću, str. 90], piše pop Pomazanić svome sinu Matiji, Slagaru u Urachu: ..."ča mi pišeš, da jeneki z Krana (Trubar!) pisal gospodinu Ungnoktu (Ungnadu), da te knjigi su rozumno stvorene, on sramotno laže. More bit da bi on hotel, da bi stvari bile složene na kranski jezik, ali aku bi bile po nih zakon postavlene, pak ih mi Hrvati ne bi rozumili..."

Znemeniti Krčki biskup i pobornik glagoljaštva, te osnivač Staroslavenske dr. Antun Mahnić (1850-1920) bio je 1919. na putu za Senj kidnapiran i nasilno odveden u Italiju. Dr. Vlada Stanjek i o. Radić zamolili su biskupa Mahnića da ne napusti borbu za glagoljicu. Mahnić je odgovorio da će u tom pogledu ostati u Rimu nepopustljiv. Vidi [Radetić, str. 75-79].

Bizatntski car iz 10. st. Konstantin Porfirogenet (tj. "Purpurnorodni") tvrdi da se zapadni dio tadanje hrvatske države prostire do rijeke Raše u Istri. Međutim još mnogo zapadnije od Raše postojala je Gočanska županija (vidi [Kirac] ili [Radetić, str. 21]).

Aleja glagoljaša (osobito Fučićev glagoljaški lapidarij u Bernobićima) između Roča i Huma; ne propustite posjetiti fenomenalan izvor rijeke Mirne u selu Kotle (odvojak kod Bernobića).


Glagolitic S (slovo), Alley of Glagolites, source

The village of Pruhari in Istria has an old Glagoliti cinscription on the local church dating from 1570. (many thanks to Nenad Bach for the photos):

U Akvileji u Italiji (između Trsta i Venecije), na jednoj freski u zgradi nasuprot glavnom ulazu u katedralu, jedan se glagoljaš Cvitković nepoznatog datuma ovjekovječio svojim potpisom:


Se pisah ja pop
(ž?)a? Cvitković

Natpis se nalazi s desna, na zidnim freskama u hodniku koji vodi do krstionice. Fotografiju mi je 2007. poslao g. Alberto Černac iz Slovenije, kojemu srdačno zahvaljujem. Postoje i drugi kraći glagoljski natpisi na zidovima kripte.

In the church of Sv. Jakov in Kršanu a glagolitic graffiti was found in 1991 (Kršan is abandoned town north of the town of Labin, on the road to Pazin (in the mid 19th century the famous Istarski razvod was found there):

Kršanski grafiti

Selo Pruhari u Istri ima stari glagoljički natpis na crkvi iz godine 1570. (zahvaljujem g. Nenadu Bachu na fotografijama):

The town of Lovran has three churches with Croatian Glagolitic inscriptions.


Lovran - glagoljski grafit pored i iza oltara crkve sv. Jurja.


Lovranska crkva sv. Ivana također ima glagoljske grafite. Prema informaciji koju sam dobio ljubaznošću g. Frane Babića iz Lovrana, i crkva sv. Trojstva u Lovranu, blizu obale, ima glagoljske informacije. Prema sjećanju stariji osoba, neke kamene ploče s uklesanim glagoljskim natpisima rabile su se kao građevinski materijal.


G. Vjeko Martinko, Lovranske vile


Lovran - Čakavski sabor

U lijepom gradiću Brseču u Istri nalazi se glagoljički grafit (Gašpar) u župnoj crkvi sv. Jurja:


Na kugli u jednoj brsečkoj ulici nalazi se natpis MIR, a pored toga ULIKA (= maslina). Kugla predstavlja plod masline. Izradio g. Ljubo de Karina iz Brseča, koji u tom gradu ima i galeriju.
Vidi Kulturna dobra Primorsko-goranske županije.

G. Ljubo de Karina iz Brseča vodi projekt izgradnje Bašćanske staze glagoljice na otoku Krku. Među inim je izradio glagoljsko slovo L visoko 4,45 m i teško 20 tona, postavljeno u Jurandvoru 2008, odmah kraj crkvice sv. Lucije u kojoj je pronađena znamenita Bašćanska ploča.


Autor Ljubo de Karina u sredini, do njega prof. Branka Polonijo, voditeljica udruge Sinjal iz Baške, župan Zlatko Komadina i dr. Milivoj Dujmović, idejni začetnik Glagoljaškog puta.

Izložba glagoljice u Rijeci, Vanda Ekl i Branko Fučić

Crkva sv. Petra kod Mošćenica u Istri, s glagoljaškom škropionicom iz godine 1573.

Monumentalni kameni spomenik hrvatskim braniteljima u obliku križa, visokog 9 m, na obali Dunava u gradu Vukovaru, dar Istrana, s natpisom "Navik on živi ki zgine pošteno" (Uvijek živi onaj tko umre posteno; knez i pjesnik Fran Krsto Frankapan) klesanim glagoljicom.


Spomenik je težak 40 tona, a izrađen je od kamena iz Istre (zahvaljujem g. Ljubi De Karini iz Brseča na ovom podatku). Spomenik predstavlja dar Hrvata iz Istre gradu Vukovaru.


Navik on živi ki zgine pošteno


Vidi Glagoljaški izleti za više pojedinosti.


 

 

Aleja glagoljaša, by Želimir Janeš and Josip Bratulić

Home of the Glagolites, by Reprezent

Istrian Frescos (in German), by Reprezent

Bašćanski glagoljaški put, Ljubo de Karina

Božo Milanović, Branko Fučić, s. Agnezija Pantelić, Ljubo Margetić

Lovranske vile, Vjeko Martinko, Oraj

Žminj, Čakavski sabor, Pino Kuhar (Poreč)

Pješački put od Mošćenica do Roča

 

 


 

 

  • U tršćanskoj biskupiji godine 1456. svećenik Križanić, javni bilježnik u Poreču, glagolskom klauzulom ovjerava prijepise međašne isprave posjeda oglajskoga patrijarhata, čiji je izvornik 1275. također napisan glagoljicom.
  • Tršćanski biskup Antun Marentius 1662. u svom izvješću "ad limina" navodi da u Trstu, u crkvi Blažene Djevice Marije "del mare" oci kapucini propovijedaju hrvatski.
  • Glagoljska ploča iz 1482. na samostanu sv. Grgura u Koparskoj biskupiji spominje njegovu gradnju.
  • G. 1592. u samostanu sv. Marije Magdalene u Kopru pravila oo. trećoredaca pišu se glagoljicom.
  • Koparski biskup Baltazar Corniani u izvješću "ad limina" 1655. iznosi da ima još 13 sela, ali neće im spominjati imena jer ih Talijan teško piše i izgovara. Žitelji govore hrvatski.
  • G. 1779. koparska sinoda određuje da se ne smije imenovati župnikom na selu svećenik koji nije na ispitu dokazao da zna govoriti hrvatski.

Kopar is a town in Slovenian part of Istrian penisula.

Source: [Glavina]

 



Sv. Stolica je na traženje biskupa Dragutina Nežića dne 27. rujna 1952. ponovno dozvolila pjevane mise na staroslavenskom jeziku u čitavoj Istri, vidi [Radetić, str. 103].

 


Prenosimo prilog iz knjige zadarskoga glagoljaša Stjepana Ivančića, Povjestne crte o samostanskom III Redu sv. O. Franje po Dalmaciji, Kvarneru i Istri, Zadar, 1910, str. 235-237, i to doslovce prema hrvatskom pravopisu prije točno 100 godina, tj. 1910.

Crkva i Samostan sv. Grgura u Kopru. (1467).

Godine 1467. koparski plemić Franjo de Spalatis bio darovao O. Martinu Novaku zadraninu, neku kuću s obližnjim vrtom i drugim zemljama tik gradskih vrata zvanih Bunedraga u Kopru [grad Kopar u današnjoj Sloveniji, D.Ž.].
Ova se je kuća nalazila kod crkve sv. Andrije, pa je darovatelj, pridržavajuć si pravo vlastništva, nalagao redovnicima, da imaju služiti u toj crkvi svakog tjedna jednu Misu zanj i njegove pokojne. Sliedeće je godine, premjestiv se u Mletke, opozvao po nagovoru O. Martina prvašnje darovanje i novom oporukom 12. rujna 1468. predao mu pomenuti posjed odričuć se svakoga ma i kojekakvoga prava, koje si bio u prvašnjoj odluci pridržao. Na tom su mjestu u crkvi sv. Andrije vršili trećoredski redovnici bogoslužje dakako glagolski, do blizu deset godina uz privolu ondašnjega biskupa, komu su ti novi redovnici bili veoma na ruku za duhovno nastojanje hrvatskog pučanstva, to u gradu, to u njegovoj okolici. Nu tako bez vlastite redovničke crkve, nije se dalo dulje ostati revnomu starješini O. Martinu, pa da odoli svojoj bogoljubnosti i da si u tom pogledu zadobi potrebite oblasti podje u Rim g. 1477. Kako je bio u običaju onoga doba, on pokloni laternaskoj Bazilici, uživale su sve i pojedine povlasti njoj osobite a povrh toga bile su neodvisne od svakojake vlasti. Vrativ se O. Martin u Kopar, odmah se lati posla te nakon dvie godine podignu liepu novu crkvu pod naslovom sv. M. Mandaljene. Od laternaskog se Kaptola nalagalo O. Ivanu iz Trsta redodržavniku Konventualaca i O. Jakovu iz Kopra Čuvaru, da il oba zajedno il pojedini od njih na ime Kaptola blagoslove prvi temeljni kamen. Do kraja godine, na staroj prostoriji sagradi i pristojniji samostan.

Kao koparski starsješina prisustvova god. 1486. redodržavnom zboru obdržanom na Glavotoku, gdje bi zbog svojih zasluga jednoglasno uzdignut na redodržavničku čast. Svršiv troljeće svoga redodržavništva, vrati se u Kopar, gdje napokon oko god. 1490. pun krjeposti i dostojanstva sveto preminu.

...


Koparski trećoredci ućivali su uvjek u onoj biskupiji počitanje osobito hrvatskih stanovnika, kojima su u gradu bili jedini pastiri. Osim što u svojoj crkvi sv. Grgura, oni su po svjedočanstvu tršćanskog kroniste Mainata (G. Mainati: Cronache di trieste. l p. 214) takodjer služili svako jutro za rana svetu misu na lagodnost poljodjelaca u crkvi sv. Tome. U obće četiri su ispovjednika nastojala vojarnu galija, koja je bila u Kopru, obavljali duhovne službe utamničenim i osudjenim na smrt pa i drugim Hrvatima stanujućim u gradu Kopru. Za ovakove službe, punomoćnik koparskih redovnika O. Antun Juranić, koji se otčinski skrbio i za pojedine samostane, zadobi i njim dovoljnu pripomoć od mletačke vlade. Odpisom 27. travnja 1792. bi im naznačena svota od 110 škuda, kojih je vlada primala kao dohodak imanja ukinute Certoze od Freijdenthal, i koje su potezali prije božićnih blagdana.

Crkva sv. Grgura imala je četiri oltara. Veliki mramorni sa takodjer mramornim svetohraništem bio je posvećen sv. Grguru. Oltar takodjer mramorni sv. Antuna, na kojem bilo hranište (custodia), gdje se čuvao krasni sredbni moćnik sa moćima presv. Križa, sv. Grgura i sv. Antuna. Druga dva oltara presv. Križa i sv. Osvalda bila su pozlaćenog drva. Poslie godine 1806. bi ovaj samostan ukinut od francuske vlade: prisvojena zgradja samostana a crkva sv. Grgura posve razorena.


Glagolitic singing in Istria

Hrvatski skladatelj Ivan Matetić Ronjgov (1880.-1960.) autor je Dobrinjske mise. Jedan je od prvih koji su notno zapisivali stare hrvatske glagoljaške napjeve.

Sopile su važno glazbalo u raznim prigodama (iz knjige Zasopimo sopile koju je napisao znameniti sopac Ivan Radić, Matica hrvatska, Rijeka 1995): sopile u krčmi, tijekom svadbe, sopile u crkvi, te na pogrebu Ivanu Matetiću Ronjgovu:

sopile in the pub
sopile on the wedding ceremony
sopile in the church
sopile on the funeral

Što je to istarska ljestvica možemo vidjeti prema načinu ugađanja para sopila (s dubokim i visokim tonom, tzv. vela i mala sopela; Istarska ljestvica ima tzv. ljestvicu tijesnih intervala (toni stretti); podatak dugujme g. Ivanu Pavačiću):

  • prvi ili muški glas ("na debelo"): E, F, G, Ab, B, Cb
  • drugi ili ženski glas ("na tanko"): C##, D#, E, F, G, Ab

Ovdje doista dolazi C## (cisis). Primijetite da imamo šest parova velikih sekunda.

Izvor svjetlopisa: Melodije Istre i Kvarnera

Glagoljaško pjevanje u Istri:

Dan od gnjeva strašnom silom [MP3], crkveni zbor iz Lindara; izvor istrapedia.hr

Maša po starinski, Smotra starocrkvenog pučkog pjevanja, Sv. Petar u Šumi

Glagoljaško pjevanje u Lanišću (Ćićarija, Istra) - Gospodine, pomiluj i Slava - nedjeljna misa, 29. 05. 2011. Glagoljaško pjevanje je jedinstveno i autohtono hrvatsko crkveno pučko pjevanje koje se razvilo uz hrvatsku obalu (Istra, Kvarner, Dalmacija) gdje je postojala stoljetna i u svijetu jedinstvena povlastica da se misa i svi obredi Rimskog (katoličkog) obreda služe na staroslavenskom i starohrvatskom a ne na Latinskom. Tako se razvilo i jedinstveno pjevanje koje u sebi sjedinjuje ranu srednjovjekovnu crkvenu glazbu i folklorne elemente svjetovnog pučkog pjevanja dotičnoga kraja.

Glagolitic chant in Lanišće (Istria, Croatia), Kyrie and Gloria, Sunday Mass, May 29th 2011. Glagolitic chant is a specific and unique Croatian liturgical folk chant that developed on the Croatian coast where the unique privilage of celebrating the Roman Rite in Old Church Slavonic (not in Latin) existed for centuries. Every local area developed it's own typical musical form of liturgical singing on the basis of old early medieval Church chant and the local folk music.

Video from Lanišće: see in Hrvatsko glagoljaško pjevanje (Croatian Glagolitic Singing)



Don Bartul Ganza (Kaštel Sućurac 1880. - Opatija 1968.), pokopan na Opatijskom groblju.

Ispod njegova imena piše župnik i kanonik, BORAC ZA GLAGOLICU.
Na samoj ploči je navedeno da je zaređen u Zadru 1905., a ispod toga na hrvatskom staroslavenskom jeziku piše:
"rabe dobri i verni... vnidi v radost Gospodina svojego" (robe dobri i vjerni... uđi u radost Gospodina svojega).
Svećenik Bartol Ganza je službovao ne samo u Opatiji, nego i u okolnim glagoljaškim selima, na pr. u Veprincu,
(Zahvaljujem prof. Željki Treer na fotografiji)



U istarskom gradiću Karojbi (između Pazina i Motovuna) otkriven je 2003. lijepi glagoljski natpis, uklesan u kamenu gredu s godinom 1518., glagoljicom i latinicom, te s popratnim glagoljičnim tekstvom u dva retka. To je prvi glagoljski natpis otkriven u tom mjestu.

 

 

Hrvatsko glagoljaško pjevanje u Istri:

Dan od gnjeva strašnom silom [MP3], crkveni zbor iz Lindara; izvor istrapedia.hr

 

 


References related to Croatian Glagolitic tradition in Istria

Vjekoslav Spinčić: Crtice iz hrvatske književne kulture Istre, Zagreb 1926. (postoji pretisak koji je izdala Kršćanska sadašnjost)

Luka Kirac: Crtice iz povijesti Istre, 1946. (reprinted by Istarsko književno društvo "Juraj Dobrila" , Pazin, in 1990)

Luka Kirac (Medulin 1860. - 1931.) je gimnaziju polazio u Senju i Rijeci, bogosloviju u Gorici. Proučavao je povijest Istre, osobito doseljnje Hrvata u Istru. Bio je župnik u mnogim mjestima Istre, a od 1808. i zastupnik sabora u Poreču. Početkom I. Svjetskog rata internirale us ga austrijske vlasti. Nakon talijanske okupacije, talijanska policija ga je držala u kućnom pritvoru oo 1919., kada je uhapšen, sve do smrti. Spomenuta knjiga dovršena je 1928. Njen rukopis, kojeg je godinama potajice pripremao, skrivao je po pukotinama zidova, jer bi inače sigurno bio uništen.

Istarski razvod [PDF] from the above book

Ernest Radetić: Istra pod Italijom 1918-1943, Zagreb 1944, with afterword by Josip Bratulić.
Ovu je knjigu nosio Božo Milanović u Pariz gdje se rješavala problematika zona A i B, tj. politička sudbina Istre (vidi pogovor Josipa Bratulića).

Božo Milanović: Moje uspomene (1900-1976), Pazin 1976. (especially pp 88-89, 157, 158, 169-171, 186)

Branko Fučić:

  • Glagoljski natpisi, JAZU (now HAZU), Zagreb, 1982,
  • Iz istarske spomenicke bastine I, Matica hrvatska, Zagreb 2007., ISBN 953-150-791-1 (especially pp 173-351, Glagoljska bastina - Glagolitic Heritage); on maps on pp 204 and 205 Humac should be much more to the east - in Herzegovina; the same mistake appears in Fucic's article in Croatia/Europe, part I (Croatia in the Middle Ages); Fucic is not the author of these maps.
  • Iz istarske spomenicke bastine II, Matica hrvatska, Zagreb 2007., ISBN 978-953-150-796-7
  • Ročki glagoljski abecedarij, Slovo : Journal of Old Church Slavonic Institute, No. 25-26 September 1976.
  • Glagoljski natpis 16. st. iz Zrenja, Slovo : Journal of Old Church Slavonic Institute, No.25-26 September 1976.

Josip Bratulić:

Tone Peruško i drugi: Knjiga o Istri (Book about Istria, see an extensive article by Josip Bratulić concerning Croatian Glagolitic tradition in Istria), Školska knjiga, Zagreb 1986.

Papers by Dražen Vlahov, Pazin

Davor Mandić (ed.): Dva tisućljeća pisane riječi u Istri (katalog izložbe), Povijesni muzej Istre, Pula, 1994., see the article of Josip Bratulić under the same title on pp. 37-51, and the list of glagolitic items of the exhibition on pp. 61-64.

Croatian Glagolitic quickscript in Istria:

Stella Fatović-Ferenčić, Marija Ana Dürrigl: Graffiti - Visual Memory of Croatian History [PDF], Croatian Medical Journal, 40(4):554-555,1999

Zdenko Balog:

Frano Glavina: Svećenici u obrani hrvatske Istre (pogled u slovenska presezanja na hrvatski teritorij u povijesti), Glas koncila br. 2, 11. siječnja 2009., str. 25, 1. dio, 2. dio u GK br. 3, 18. siječnja 2009., str. 25


Najstarji glagoljički natpisi na hrvatskom sjeveru, prema Branku Fučiću (Istarska danica 1972.)
Kasnije dodani Roč (Ročki abecedarij), Sveti Petar u Šumi (Supetarski odlomak)


Branko Fučić: Istarske freske, Zagreb 1963.

www.istra.hr

Hum - Aleja glagoljaša


Humska biska s glagoljičnim slovom S, u malim količinama - vrlo zdravo piće


Glagoljička tiskara u Roču; osmislio Frane Paro, prof. ALU


Pučko otvoreno sveučilište "Augustin Vivoda" Buzet


Humska konoba

Natpis na ulaznim vratima u grad Hum:

Tom malom gradiću
u pohode dojdi
na komanu tvrdu
toplina vri


G. Stjepan Bahert ispred Ročke konobe

Ročka konoba


Dobro došli! Fameja Staver (familija Staver), konoba u Žminju


Fameja Staver, Konoba Krculi, Žminj


Radio Labin


Um caruje, OŠ Andrije Mohorovičića, Matulji, fotografirao dr. Žaljko Hanjš


Gradska knjižnica Opatija. 
Zahvaljujem prof. Karmen Zubčić-Mandekić na fotografiji.


Dvegrajci, udruga za očuvanje i promicanje nasljeđa - Kanfanar


Stubište u čast dr. Vande Ekl, koja je zajedno s Branko Fučićem priredila Izložbu glagoljice u Rijeci.
Ima li Branko Fučić neku ulicu u Hrvatskoj?

Boris Biletić


Professor Katica Šarlija from the village of Samarica, during the Glagolitic school seminar in Ivanska
near the town of Bjelovar in 2008, showing Danijel Načinović's book.

A young boy lives in Zagreb, born in 1990's, bearing the name Roč. The name was given according to the name of the town of Roč.
We have an information that he is a honorary citizen of the town of Roč.

Daniel Načinović:Mali glagoljaši (Little Glagolitic writers), illustrated by Ivan Gregov, Primary school Vazmoslav Gržalje, Buzet.


Pločnik u gradu Rijeci, s glagoljičkim JE.

Gunjci

swirl.bloger.hr


The role of Croatian Glagolitic Script in the political destiny of Istria after the WW2

Uloga hrvatske glagoljice za političku sudbinu Istre nakon 2. svjetskog rata

Dr. Božo Milanović 1890.-1980, istaknuti hrvatski svećenik iz Istre


Croatian Glagolitic Heritage in Lika

Croatian Glagolitic Heritage in the Region of Zadar

A small Croatian Glagolitic Encyclopaedia

 


www.croatianhistory.net/etf/istria.html