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William Feller
(Zagreb, 1906 - New York, 1970)
outstanding Croatian-American mathematician


Vilim Feller as a student at the University of Zagreb

William Feller (Zagreb, 1906 - New York, 1970), graduated in mathematics from the University of Zagreb (1925), earned his PhD in Göttingen (1926). Professor in Kiel, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Lund. Since 1939 lived in the USA, employed at Universities of Brown, Cornell, and Princeton. One of the founders of Probability Theory as a scientific discipline, best known for his two volume monograph An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, translated into Russian (with foreword to Volume 1 written by Kolmogorov), Chinese, Spanish, Polish, and Hungarian. Many mathematical notions bear his name. Member of several national academies, recipient of the National Medal of Science, USA.


Croatian Coat of Arms



Andrija Mohorovicic (1857-1936)


Among scientists studying seismology the famous Moho-layer (or Moho-discontinuity) of the Earth is well known. It was named after the great Croatian geophysicist Andrija Mohorovicic (born in Volosko, 1857-1936), professor at the University of Zagreb. His discovery was essential for understanding the inner structure of the Earth and the behavior of seismic waves. Together with the theory of forces due to Rudjer Boskovic, this is probably the greatest achievement in the history of Croatian science.

Andrija Mohorovicic, discoverer of MOHO layer

Let us cite a part of his biography from Willard Basom's monograph A hole in the Bottom of the Sea, The story of the MOHOLE project, 1959/61, Doubledays, USA (p. 143):


... As a boy of 15 he spoke Italian, French, and English as well as his native Croatian, later added German, Czech, Latin, and old Greek. He studied physics at the University of Prague under some famous professors including E. Mach and did his graduate work at the University of Zagreb, from which he obtained a Ph.D. In 1894 Dr. Mohorovicic became Director of the Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics and Professor at the University of Zagreb in 1897, where he remained until his retirement in 1921. His special interest was the precise measurement of time for both astronomical and seismical events, but his reputation mainly rests on his classic paper in the field of seismology, The Earthquake of October 8, 1909, which contains the news of his discovery of a major discontinuity at a depth of 55 kilometers. This discontinuity, now generally known as the Moho in his honor, defines the crust of the earth. ...



Milka Trnina (1863-1941),
a famous Croatian opera singer

According to Giacomo Puccini, author of the famous opera Tosca,
she was the best "Tosca" that he had opportunity to listen to (on the London première in 1900).

Milka Trnina

Did You know that the name of the famous MILKA chocolate, Switzerland,
had been given in honour to Milka Trnina, Croatian opera diva?
The founder of the company, who was a great admirer of the singer,
decided to name the company and his chocolate by the name of MILKA.

Milka (TRNINA) Chocolate



F.J. Haydn




by Sir William H. Hadow

First edition in 1897, London (Seely and co. limited),
reprinted in 1972, New York (Books for Libraries Press, Freeport, New York)


...if we accept the historical statement as true, we do something to rescue a musical nation from undeserved neglect. The race which has given to a master not only birth but inspiration may surely claim from us someting better than oblivion into which we have allowed its name to fall.

[from Hadow's PREFACE, Oxford, 1897]

Compare a Croatian folk song ("V jutro rano se ja stanem)

with the German national anthem, composed by Joseph Haydn:


The Lipik Orphanage
Colonel Mark Cook, UK

Vladek Matic and Valentina Murtic, good friends from the Lipik Orphanage


Mr. Mark Cook, UK, a great humanist:
I made a promise to the kids to get them back into their Orphanage...
You can't break promises to children.

Benedikt Kotruljevic
15th century, author of
the first manual about book-keeping,
the oldest manuscript on double-entry,
and of the first known manual on navigation

The first known manual about book-keeping was Della mercatura e del mercante perfetto,
(On merchantry and the perfect merchant) written in 1458 by Benedikt Kotruljevic
(Benedictus de Cotrullis, born in Dubrovnik, 1416-1469).
It is also the oldest known manuscript on double-entry.
As such it precedes Luca Pacioli's description of double-entry for no less than 36 years,
so that Kotruljic's priority is indisputable.

Kotruljic's famous 1464 manuscript on book-keeping,
was printed in 1573 in Venice; editor and publisher was
another oustanding Croatian scholar - Franjo Petris

His another important manuscript is Benedictus de Cotrullis: "De Navigatione", 1464.
It is the first known manual on navigation in the history of Europe.
Note that it appeared almost 30 years before the discovery of America.

Benedictus de Cotrullis: De Navigatione, 1464;
photo from Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

The original manuscript is kept at the University of Yale, USA,
in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.


William Feller (1906-1970)
Croatian-American mathematician

The list of 145 mathematical notions
bearing the name of Feller:


  1. Feller theory
  2. Feller process
  3. Feller minimal process
  4. strong Feller process
  5. doubly Feller process
  6. Feller property
  7. strong Feller's property
  8. weak Feller's property
  9. Feller class
  10. Feller chain
  11. Feller-McKean chain
  12. Feller-Markov chains
  13. Quasi-Feller Markov chains
  14. Feller extension
  15. Feller's decomposition
  16. Feller's road map
  17. Feller diffusion process
  18. two-parameter Feller process
  19. Doubly-Feller process
  20. Feller branching diffusion
  21. Feller transition function
  22. Feller's representation
  23. Feller's construction
  24. Feller transition probabilities
  25. Feller-Reuter-Riley (FRR) property
  26. Feller-Reuter-Riley transition function
  27. Feller continuity
  28. Feller semigroup
  29. Feller-Dynkin semigroup
  30. Feller-Dynkin diffusion
  31. Feller-Dynkin process
  32. Feller-Dynkin propagators
  33. Feller-Dynkin characterizations
  34. Feller generator
  35. Feller's transformation
  36. Feller's randomization technique
  37. Chung-Feller theorem
  38. Feller-Lindvall diffusion
  39. Feller-Lamperti-Lindvall invariance principle
  40. Feller-Pareto distribution
  41. Feller data
  42. Feller's parametric equations
  43. Feller operator
  44. sub-Feller operator
  45. discrete Feller operator
  46. selfadjoint Feller operators
  47. Feller kernel
  48. Feller stochastic kernel
  49. quasi-Feller kernels
  50. Feller approximation
  51. Feller perturbation
  52. Feller resolvent
  53. Feller minimal resolvent
  54. Feller boundary
  55. Feller's natural boundaries
  56. Feller classification
  57. Feller boundary classification
  58. Feller-Wentzell-type boundary conditions
  59. Feller-Ventcel' end conditions
  60. Feller-Ueno boundary decomposition
  61. Feller's domainated variation
  62. Feller alternatives
  63. Dirichlet-Feller operator
  64. Trotter-Feller operator
  65. Feller potential
  66. Riesz-Feller potential
  67. Riesz Feller derivative
  68. Kato-Feller (Feller-Kato) potential
  69. Kato-Feller class
  70. Kato-Feller norm
  71. Kato-Feller property
  72. Trotter-Feller operator
  73. Keldysh-Feller operator
  74. Keldysh-Feller conditions
  75. Feller Brownian motions
  76. co-Feller operator
  77. co-Feller Markov chain
  78. stochastic compactness in Feller's sense
  79. Feller's test for explosions
  80. Lindeberg-Feller condition
  81. generalized Feller condition
  82. Feller-Lindeberg central limit theorem
  83. Bernstein-Feller central limit theorem
  84. Feller-Khintchine-Lévy central limit theorem
  85. Feller's renewal theorem
  86. Blackwell-Feller-Orey renewal theorem
  87. Feller's theory of recurrent events
  88. Feller's recurrent events
  89. Feller's discrete time recurrent phenomena
  90. concept of Feller-Gantos
  91. Feller-Jirina-Lamperti convergence
  92. Erdös-Feller-Pollard theorem
  93. Feller's paradox
  94. Chernoff-Feller-Klotz-Stone-Sievers approach
  95. Aleksandrov-Busemann-Feller theorem
  96. Busemann-Feller-Aleksandrov theorem
  97. Busemann-Feller (BF) basis
  98. Feller measures
  99. Feller invariant measure
  100. Feller system
  101. Feller-Arley process (model)
  102. Feller-Arley birth and death process
  103. Feller minimal birth-death process
  104. Feller minimal solutions
  105. Feller's solution
  106. Non-Feller model
  107. Quasi-Feller model
  108. Feller's coupling method
  109. Dickey-Feller test
  110. Lévy-Feller process
  111. Lévy-Feller diffusion
  112. Lévy-Feller advection-dispersion process
  113. Markov-Feller (Feller-Markov) process
  114. Markov-Feller semigroup
  115. Markov-Feller (Feller-Markov) operators
  116. Markov-Feller pair
  117. Feller semi-Markov control processes
  118. Krein-Feller operators
  119. indefinite Krein-Feller differential operators
  120. Krein-Feller (eigenvalue) problem
  121. Krein-Feller second order derivative
  122. Feller-Miyadera-Phillips theorem
  123. Hille-Phillips-Feller-Miyadera conditions
  124. Hille-Yosida-Feller-Phillips-Miyadera semigroup
  125. Hille-Yosida-Feller theorem
  126. Feller cocycle
  127. Feller-Jirina theorem
  128. Feller-Jirina scheme
  129. Feller-Tornier constant
  130. Generalized Feller equation
  131. Feller solutions to SPDE's
  132. Feller's law of the iterated logarithm
  133. Feller-Erdös-Kolmogorov-Petrovski criterion
  134. Petrovskii-Erdös-Feller integral functional
  135. Feller-Fokker-Planck equation
  136. Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov-Feller equation
  137. Kolmogorov-Feller test
  138. Kolmogorov-Erdös-Feller integral tests
  139. Kolmogorov–Feller weak law of large numbers
  140. Kolmogorov-Feller (Feller-Kolmogorov) equation
  141. Kolmogorov-Feller integro-differential equation
  142. Kolmogorov-Feller-Stratonovich equation
  143. Kolmogorov-Feller theory of Markov processes
  144. Kolmogorov-Feller jump processes
  145. Kolmogorov-Feller-type operator




Mother Teresa (1910-1997)


The first monument honouring Mother Teresa was carved on the island of Brac (2002).
It was unveiled by Martin Sheen.

She visited the city of Zagreb and Croatia on several occasions, and always spoke Croatian.
Moreover, once she even delivered a sermon in the Zagreb cathedral in Croatian.

After many years she met her brother in Italy, who forgot his native Albanian and did not speak English. Surprisingly, they were able to communicate only in Croatian!

Delicate stone lace on windows,
Pucisca on the island of Brac

The white marble from the island of Brac, is highly appreciated among sculptors.
It was also used in the building of

the White House in Washington,
the Battary park in New York
the Austrian Parliament and the New Palace in Vienna,
the Hungarian Parliament in Budapest,

Croatian Tamburitza Players


The Tamburica Croatian Orchestra, 1887 County of Buffalo, Nebraska, USA (see

The Tamburica Croatian Orchestra, 1887, County of Buffalo, Nebraska, USA

Tamburitza orchestra "Zivila Hrvatska" (Long Live Croatia), USA,
performed in White House for president F. Roosewelt in 1900.

Tamburaski zbor "Kluba uciteljica" (Tamburitza orchestra of Women's Professor's Club, Vrbnik, island of Krk),
photo around 1900?

Croats in Punta Arenas, Chile, with their tamburitzas (photo from Lj. Antic, Hrvati u J. Americi, Zagreb, 1991)

Croats in Punta Arenas, Chile (Magallanes region), with their tamburitzas
Croatian tamburitza band Tomislav in Punta Arenas, 1905
Hrvatsko tamburasko drustvo Tomislav, Punta Arenas, 1905

United choirs of the Kastav region near Rijeka, 1908

Fabian Koss, John Hrvacich, other unknown


Croatian tamburitza orchestra Falcon - Hrvatski tamburaski orkestar Sokol,
Argentina, 1919 (from an exhibition Los Croatas en Argentina, Carmen Verlichak,
Matica iseljenika, Zagreb 2007)

Croatian Christmas on Strawberry Hill, Kansas City, USA

Licka vecer

The Lika Night in Bazenheid, Switzerland
two generations of female players of tamburica from Lika

Pokupsko tamburitza players celebrating Christmas in the ruined church in 1991 (Pokupsko is near Zagreb)

CroatiaFest 2005, Seattle, USA, Photo - Jal Schrof

REQUEST. I would deeply appreciate your help (
concerning photos and information about old Croatian tamburitza bands.


Rudolf Matz (1901-1988)

perhaps the greatest cello theoretician in the world

Rudolf Matz became professor of cello at the University of Zagreb in 1950,
where he stayed until his retirement in 1972. He was also a top Croatian sportsman.

Ethno Hairstyles of Croatia
very old and unique in Europe






Sources: Gatalinka, Vinkovci (for the first four photos), and Pokupsko;
on this web with permission



Valley of Gatska today (photo Mladen Zubrinic)

Valley of Gatska river, Lika (photo by Mladen Zubrinic)


The chapel of Sv. Marko Grob, near Udbina, Lika (photo by D.Z.)


Sokolac fortress in Brinje (photo by Joseph Birkas)

Sokolac fortress in Brinje, Lika (photo by Joseph Birkas, HU)

Croatian Mariners and Captains


Croatian coat of arms (on threecolor flag) on the front mast of the Enrica brig built in 1868 in Rijeka, 40 m long. Captian Paskval Stipanovic, travelled to New York, Belfast, Queenstown, Cardiff, Montreal, Gibraltar. Painted by a French painter Antoine Roux, junior, 1892.


Captain Mate Dulcic Hraste-Pucetov from the island of Hvar obtained a silver jug from the British Governement as a recognition for saving the boat "St. Croix". Gilted inside, 14.5 cm high and with diameter of the opening of 8.5 cm, the jug bears the the following inscription:

Presented by the British Government to captain Matteo Dulcich Hraste of the "Giovanni D" of Jelsa in acknowledgement of his humanity and kindness to the shipwrecked crew of the "St. Croix" of Jersey, 27 September 1877, abandoned at sea.


Captain Marko Vekarich, Master of the Austro-Hungarian Barque "Isaac", received the following letter from the Government of Canada for saving the shipwrecked crew of Canadian ship "Angle" in the Atlantic (the letter is kept in the town of Orebic, Peljesac peninsula near Dubrovnik):


Ottawa, 12th February 1879


Her Majesty's Government having brought under the notice of this Department the circumstances connected with the wrecke of the "Angle" of St. John, New Bruswick, and the services rendered by you, as Master of the "Isaac", to the shipwrecked crew, it affords me much satisfaction to convey to you the thanks of the Government of Canada and to request your acceptance of the accompaning gold watch, which has been awarded in recognition of you human and generous services.

I am, Sir,
your most obediant servant
James C. Voke
Minister of Marine etc.


In 1861 captain Jozo Sunj from Orebic (Peljesac peninsula), Master of the Barque "Nicolo Despot", obtained official recognition and gold chronometer with engraved dedication from Abraham Lincoln, president of the USA, for having saved the crew of the USA sailor "Homer" in the Atlantic.


Pepe Medanovic, captain of a steamer "Kostrena", saved a French steamer Gaulois in Biskay bay in very difficult conditions. The French president conferred a medal. Maritime press reported on this saving throughout the world.




Le Ministre de la Marine certifie que, par Décret en date du 10 mai 1912, le Président de la République Française a décerné la Médaille de Sauvetage en or de 2ême classe à Monsieur le capitaine Medanovich commandant le vapeur hongrois (!) "Kostrena", qui a recueilli à son bord, le 25 janvier 1912, aprés de maneuvres rendues trés difficiles
par l'état de la mer, tout l'equipage du vapeur français "Gaulois" de Bunhergue (?), en perdition au [?large ac tl Corogne?]

Par Directeur de la Navitation et les Pêches Maritimes


Paris, le 10 Mai 1912





Makybe Diva and Glen Boss with a Croatian cap
Photo by Sebastian Costanzo

Mr Tony Santic (tuna farmer), Australian Croat born on the beautiful Croatian island of Lastovo, is the owner of a famous mare Makybe Diva. This strange name is an acronym, derived from the names of five ladies employed at Mr Santic: Maureen, Kylie, Belinda, Diane and Vanessa. In 2005 Makybe Diva became the first horse in Australasian racing history to claim three Melbourne Cups and a Cox Plate.

The Boss with Croatian Coat of Arms and Makybe Diva
Photo by Wayne Taylor

Celebrating the victory

The winning jersey winning the hearts...

Mr. Tony Santic is in the middle, Glen Boss on the right (Makybe Diva missing),
with Croatian Coat of Arms on his jersey

Goooooooogling with Makybe Diva and with a Croatian hat ...

Zdravko Ducmelic
el pintor preferido de Borges

Zdravko Ducmelic (1923-1989), outstanding Croatian - Argentinean painter,
masterfully illustrated a famous book "Laberintos", written by Jorge Luis Borges,
with his surreal, quasi-metaphysical works.

Some other paintings by Zdravko Ducmelic:


"Cabeza femenina"

"La Biblioteca de Babel"

"Mujer Joven y Caballo" (photos from Arroyo)

Zdravko Ducmelic, autoportrait

Zvonimir Janko

outstanding Croatian mathematician

Zvonimir Janko (born in 1932 in Croatia), studied mathematics and earned his PhD at the University of Zagreb. He is professor of mathematics at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and his name is well known among experts in the theory of finite groups. Professor Janko discovered sporadic groups named J1, J2, J3, and J4 in his honour. They are called Janko groups.


In 1997, during the celebration of 65th birthday of professor Janko in Maniz, Germany, Bertram Huppert, the author and coauthor (with Norman Blackburn) of the most extensive, encyclopaedic treatise and manual on finite groups, Endliche gruppen I, II, III, said roughly the following:

"There were a very few things that surprised me in my life. I experienced the Second World War. It could have been predicted that there will be war. I believe it will surprise you, and some of you may be shocked by what I am going to say. There were only the following two events that really surprised me: the discovery of the first Janko group and the fall of the Berlin Wall."



Blanka Vlasic


Blanka Vlasic celebrating her victory with Croatian flag in her hands,
at the World Championship in Athletics, Osaka, Japan 2007

Anthony Maglica

holder of hundreds of patents and trademarks, founded Mag Instrument, Inc, in Los Angeles in 1955, and designed Mag-Lite flashlight, which is now an American product icon, among 100 top products that "America makes best".

Mag-Lite flashlight, invented by Tony Maglica



Croatian region south of the City of Dubrovnik,
famous among others for beautiful national costumes

Mrs Ane Marnic from the village of Dubravka in Konavle, south of Dubrovnik
photo from 2006, many thanks to Dr. Zdenko Zeravica, Dubrovnik

Children of Konavle in national costumes
photo by Najka Mirkovic, Dubrovnik





Nikola Tesla
Moho layer
Schwarz airship

Croatian World Network

King of Dolls
Kristian Krekovic