A CROATIAN COMPOSER
NOTES TOWARD THE STUDY
by Sir William H. Hadow
First edition in 1897, London,
reprinted in 1972, New York.
Joseph Haydn (1738-1809). Pencil sketch by
George Dance, 1794.
Source of the photo Classical
[CONCLUSION AND APPENDICES]
EXCERPTS from the book from p. 72 to p. 98.
[p. 72] It is to be hoped that these examples will not encourage
any reader to pursue Haydn with the cry of plagiarist. No
accusation could be more unfounded or more unreasonable.
He poached upon no man's preserve, he robbed no
brother-artist, he simply ennobled those peasant-tunes with
the thought and expression of which he was most nearly in
accord. The whole extent of his indebtedness is at most an
occasional melody, and is often but a single phrase; the
treatment, the setting, the workmanship belong as truly to
him as Faust to Goethe, or Cymbeline to Shakespeare. The
master who has written a hundred and twenty first-rate
symphonies, and eighty-three first-rate quartets, may surely
claim the right to take his wealth where he finds it; and if
we are churlish enough to deny this, at least we may allow
him the privilege of speaking in his native tongue.
...It is more important to note how closely his special melodic gift
is in sympathy with that of his people. Many of the tunes
quoted above are among those which a critic would select as
especially characteristic: there are literally hundreds of
his inventions by which, in a more or less degree, the same
qualities are exhibited. No doubt he was not only the child
of his own nation, he had his own personality, his own
imaginative force, his own message to deliver in the ears of
the world. But through all these the national element runs
as a determining thread. That "les grands artistes n'ont pas
de patrie" is a sentence abundantly refuted by its very
author; it assuredly finds no support in the life of the
Croatian peasant who has made immortal the melodies of his
p. 83 ...Nothing can be more false than to regard him as merely
a Court musician, writing with ready and facile talent the
pièces d'occasion that were needed for the
theatre or the reception-room. His life at Eisenstadt gave
him opportunity such that no composer had ever before
enjoyed, but the patronage was too enlightened and the
character too strong to be satisfied with work that was
mannered or artificial. Under the famous "livery of blue and
silver" there beat the heart of a rustic poet, full of
kindliness, of drollery, of good-fellowship, of the love for
children and animals. His genius, trained by years of
assiduous labor, gave him a complete mastery over the
inherited resources of his art, his imagination extended
them with fresh discoveries and invention. But throughout
the whole his favorite themes are pastoral, songs of the
shepherd and the harvester, songs of country courtship,
songs of the vintage feast and the jovial holiday. It is
little wonder that he should speak in the language of his
people, or recall the phrases that had been familiar from
p.84 ...He could not have written of set habit in the German
idiom; he was Slav by race and Slav by temper, and his music
is too genuine to present itself in foreign guise. It is
from this point of view that we should understand him; not
by loosely classifying him among a people with whom he had
little in common, but by regarding him as the true
embodiment of his own national spirit.
Croatian musicians, 1835-1848
(1) Composers: - Lisinski, Livadic, Wiesner, Rusan,
Pintavic, Jaic, Cackovic, Stoos, Masek, Baron Prandau, F.
(2) Singers: - Countess Rubido, Stazic, Striga,
(3) Virtuosi, etc: - Ivan Padovec, L.A. Zellner
Croatian musicians, 1848-1880
(1) Composers: - Rihar*, Vilhar*, Flesman, Köck,
Epstein, Zajc, Strmic, Just, G. Eisenhut, A. Mihalovic,
Kociancic, Leban*, Valenta*, Slava Atanasijevic, Faller,
Singers: - Ema Murska, Matilda Marlov, Matilda
Mallinger, Ema Vizjak, Irma Terputec, Mazoleni, Grbic,
Kasman, Nolli*, Maria Kotas, Maria Pikril, Maca Matacic,
Virtuoisi: - Steiner, Hummel, Ludmila Veizer, Josif
Eisenhut, Ciol, Petric, Ivan Mihalovic, F. Krezma, Anka
Conductors, Professors, etc.: - Kukulevic, B. Ipavec,
G. Ipavec, Antun Svarc*, Martin Jenko, Adolf Schwartz, Ida
Croatian Names in the Pusterthal and
| Germanised form: -
- Arvig (?)
- Glinz (Linz)
| Croatian form: -
- Pec (Pesti)
Note - For similar examples in other parts of
Austria, see Kämmel's "Die Anfänge deutschen
Lebens in Oesterreich."
Traces of the Croat Population in the District
The following towns and villages have possessed a Croat
population, either predominant or at least considerable:
Maiersdorf, Zverndorf, Pangort, Marchegg, Bratisey, Senfeld,
Hlohovac, Siebenbrunn, Horisey, Stradorf, Poturno,
Limisdorf, Andlesdorf (Razvitnjak), Gustatin, Petronel,
Rohrau (Trstnik), Wildungsmauer, Kaglor, Piselsdorf,
Mannersdorf, Au (Cindrov), Hof (Cimov), Landeck, Kroatisch
Wagram (Ogran hrvatski), Frama, Fuchspichl (Fukspil), Ort,
Bratstatin, Lower Siebensbrunn, Kroatisch Haslern (Hazlor
Besides the whole district round Eisenstadt, Oedenburg, and
the Neusiedler See.
Musicians born in Pressburg [Bratislava] and its
- Hans Neusiedler, Lutenist, born 1563 near Neusiedler
- Viet Bach, grandfather of J.S. Bach, born about 1580 at
- Andreas Ruach, organist and composer, born about 1590 at
- Samuel Bockshorn (Capricornus), conductor, born in 1629
- Joseph Haydn, born in 1732 at Rohrau.
- Michael Hadyn, born in 1737 at Rohrau.
- Johann Evangelist Haydn, born in 1743 at Rohrau.
- Matthias Kamiensky (Kamenar), composer, born in 1734 at
- Theodor Lotz, musical instrument maker, born about 1740
- Anton Zimmermann, composer, born in 1750 at Pressburg.
- N. Hadrava, Lutenist, born in 1750 near Pressburg,
- G. Druschetzky (Druzechi), composer, born about 1760 at
- Jacob Hurtl, oboe-player in the Esterhazy orchestra,
born about 1760 at Eisenstadt.
- Joseph Weigel (Weigl), composer, born in 1706 at
- Ivan Bihari, violinist and composer, born in 1769 at
- Stephan Koch, musical instrument maker, born in 1772 at
- Ivan Fuss, composer, born in 1777 at Tolnau.
- Johann Nepomuk Hummel, born in 1778 at Pressburg.
- Joseph Blahak, composer, born in 1779 at Raggersdorf.
- Ivan Fuchs, Kapellmeister to Prince Esterhazy, born in
1780 at Eisenstadt.
- Peter Lichtenthal, composer, born in 1780 at Pressburg.
- Count Thadeus Amadé, pianist, born in 1783 at
- Adolf Müller, composer, born in 1802 at Tolnau.
- Joseph Wurda, singer, born in 1807 at Gjur (Raab).
- Friedrich Fischer, singer, born in 1809 at Pressburg.
- Franz Liszt, Born in 1811 at Raiding (Rudnik).
The case of Liszt is somewhat apart from the
others. The earlist form of his name appears to be Listhius,
which Dr. Kuhac claims with some plausibility as Slavonic
(nase gore list). But as early as 1747 the Magyarised form
appears in the person of Canon Johann Liszt; and there can
be little doubt that by the time of the great pianist's
birth the family had become thoroughly Hungarian. There are,
of course, many Hungarian families in which Magyar and
Slavonic strains are united, and in the music of Liszt the
Magyar element unquestionably predominates.
- Michael Hauser, violinist, born in 1822 at Pressburg.
- Ferdinand Kletzer, violoncellist, born in 1830 at
- Joseph Joachim, born in 1831 at Kitsee.
- Carl Goldmark, born in 1832 at Keszthelyn.
- Ludwing Straus, born in 1845 at Pressburg.
- Leopold Auer, violinist, born in 1845 at Vesprim.
- Charlotte Debner, violinist, born in 1846 at Kitsee.
Names of Croatian Musicians Translated or
(a) Translated (equivalent of meaning:
| Current Name
| Croatian Name
- Potocic or Potocnjak
- Dimic or Dimovic
- Tesar or Tesarevic
- Kuhac, Kuhacevic, or Kuharevic
- Nogic, or Nogavac
- Bumbarevic or Cemliak
- Lissa, Lisica, or Lisinski
- Mlinar or Mlinaric
- Ribar or Ribaric
(b) Corrupted (Adaptation of sound: reasonably
| Current Name
- Jelich or Jael
- Nachich or Nanchini
| Croatian Name
Variants of the name "Haydn" within the
of the Composer's Family
Back to Sir W.H. Hadow: A Croatian Composer; notes towards
the study of Joseph Haydn
- Register of Caspar Heiden's marriage, Hainburg, 1657.
- Register of Joseph Haiden's death, Hainburg, April 19,
- Register of the composer's baptism, Rohrau, April 1,
1732 (the father's name is given as Mathias Haiden)
- Register of his mother's death, Rohrau, February 25,
- Register of Thomas Hayden's death, Hainburg, September
4, 1701, and of his widow's re-marriage, Hainburg, January
- Register of the composer's marriage, (St. Stephen's,
Vienna, November 26, 1760).
- The composer's signature (quittance for salary)
Eisenstadt, January, 1762
- Register of Mathias Hayden's death, Rohrau, September
14, 1763, and the monument to him now in Rohrau
- Frequent concert notices, both of the composer and his
brother Michael, the latter at Salzburg.
- Habitual signature for many years of Michael Hayden.
- The composer's monument in Count Harrach's Park at
- The name of composer's mother is so given on the
monument in Rohrau Churchyard.
- The composer's name is so written throughout the
"Convention und Verhaltungs-Norma" under which he held
his appointment at Eisenstadt.
- Register of Thomas Heiden's baptism, Hainburg, 1655.
- Occasionally, though rarely, in concert programmes.
- Register of Mathias Haydn's baptism, Hainburg,
January 31, 1609.
- The composer's habitual signature after February,
- Register of his wife's death, Baden, March 20, 1800. Diploma
of the Freedom of Vienna, April 1, 1804.
- Many notices and concert programmes.
- Monumnet to the composer in the Einsiedeln Church at
- Register of Barbara Haidn's baptism, Hainburg,
January 2, 1658.
- Frequent notices and concert programmes.
- Letter of Beethoven, 1822.
- Register of Thomas Hayrn's marriage, Hainburg,
November 23, 1687 - his father's name is also given as
Caspar Hayrn; see items (1), (2), and (3).
- Register of Mathias Hein's marriage, Rohrau,
November 24, 1728.
- Occasional variants in registers and documents at
Heinburg, Rohrau, etc, noted by Dr. Pohl (also below).