by Sir William H. Hadow

First edition in 1897, London,
reprinted in 1972, New York.

Joseph Haydn (1738-1809). Pencil sketch by George Dance, 1794.
Source of the photo Classical Music Pages.



EXCERPTS from the book from p. 72 to p. 98.

[p. 72] It is to be hoped that these examples will not encourage any reader to pursue Haydn with the cry of plagiarist. No accusation could be more unfounded or more unreasonable. He poached upon no man's preserve, he robbed no brother-artist, he simply ennobled those peasant-tunes with the thought and expression of which he was most nearly in accord. The whole extent of his indebtedness is at most an occasional melody, and is often but a single phrase; the treatment, the setting, the workmanship belong as truly to him as Faust to Goethe, or Cymbeline to Shakespeare. The master who has written a hundred and twenty first-rate symphonies, and eighty-three first-rate quartets, may surely claim the right to take his wealth where he finds it; and if we are churlish enough to deny this, at least we may allow him the privilege of speaking in his native tongue.

...It is more important to note how closely his special melodic gift is in sympathy with that of his people. Many of the tunes quoted above are among those which a critic would select as especially characteristic: there are literally hundreds of his inventions by which, in a more or less degree, the same qualities are exhibited. No doubt he was not only the child of his own nation, he had his own personality, his own imaginative force, his own message to deliver in the ears of the world. But through all these the national element runs as a determining thread. That "les grands artistes n'ont pas de patrie" is a sentence abundantly refuted by its very author; it assuredly finds no support in the life of the Croatian peasant who has made immortal the melodies of his race.

p. 83 ...Nothing can be more false than to regard him as merely a Court musician, writing with ready and facile talent the pièces d'occasion that were needed for the theatre or the reception-room. His life at Eisenstadt gave him opportunity such that no composer had ever before enjoyed, but the patronage was too enlightened and the character too strong to be satisfied with work that was mannered or artificial. Under the famous "livery of blue and silver" there beat the heart of a rustic poet, full of kindliness, of drollery, of good-fellowship, of the love for children and animals. His genius, trained by years of assiduous labor, gave him a complete mastery over the inherited resources of his art, his imagination extended them with fresh discoveries and invention. But throughout the whole his favorite themes are pastoral, songs of the shepherd and the harvester, songs of country courtship, songs of the vintage feast and the jovial holiday. It is little wonder that he should speak in the language of his people, or recall the phrases that had been familiar from his childhood.

p.84 ...He could not have written of set habit in the German idiom; he was Slav by race and Slav by temper, and his music is too genuine to present itself in foreign guise. It is from this point of view that we should understand him; not by loosely classifying him among a people with whom he had little in common, but by regarding him as the true embodiment of his own national spirit.



Croatian musicians, 1835-1848

(1) Composers: - Lisinski, Livadic, Wiesner, Rusan, Pintavic, Jaic, Cackovic, Stoos, Masek, Baron Prandau, F. von Suppé

(2) Singers: - Countess Rubido, Stazic, Striga, Ledenig

(3) Virtuosi, etc: - Ivan Padovec, L.A. Zellner


Croatian musicians, 1848-1880

(1) Composers: - Rihar*, Vilhar*, Flesman, Köck, Epstein, Zajc, Strmic, Just, G. Eisenhut, A. Mihalovic, Kociancic, Leban*, Valenta*, Slava Atanasijevic, Faller, Kuhac

* Slovenian

Singers: - Ema Murska, Matilda Marlov, Matilda Mallinger, Ema Vizjak, Irma Terputec, Mazoleni, Grbic, Kasman, Nolli*, Maria Kotas, Maria Pikril, Maca Matacic, Sofia Kramberger

Virtuoisi: - Steiner, Hummel, Ludmila Veizer, Josif Eisenhut, Ciol, Petric, Ivan Mihalovic, F. Krezma, Anka Krezma, Kolander

Conductors, Professors, etc.: - Kukulevic, B. Ipavec, G. Ipavec, Antun Svarc*, Martin Jenko, Adolf Schwartz, Ida Wimberger


Croatian Names in the Pusterthal and Neighbourhood

Germanised form: -

  1. Aegrathal
  2. Arvig (?)
  3. Berlogaz
  4. Bschowitz
  5. Dolnitz
  6. Frutscherthal
  7. Garnitza
  8. Glanz
  9. Glinz (Linz)
  10. Gollisel
  11. Gruschgize
  12. Kollnig
  13. Kräl
  14. Libisel
  15. Lasser
  16. Lessing
  17. Motschenboden
  18. Pedoll
  19. Petsch
  20. Plötsch
  21. Politz
  22. Pusterhal
  23. Rudenek
  24. Stoanitzbrunn
  25. Stolizen
  26. Tragen
  27. Tristach
  28. Villgraten
  29. Zabemig
  30. Zelzach
  31. Zuchepoll

Croatian form: -

  1. Ograda
  2. Oranik
  3. Brlog
  4. Pusovec
  5. Dolina
  6. Vrucidol
  7. Krnica
  8. Klanjec
  9. Glinica
  10. Goloselo
  11. Kruskica
  12. Kolnik
  13. Kralj
  14. Ljubisel
  15. Lesar
  16. Lesnik
  17. Mocva
  18. Podolje
  19. Pec (Pesti)
  20. Ploca
  21. Polica
  22. Pustodol
  23. Rudnik
  24. Studenac
  25. Stolica
  26. Draga
  27. Trstje
  28. Velegrad
  29. Zavrhnik
  30. Selca
  31. Suhopolje

Note - For similar examples in other parts of Austria, see Kämmel's "Die Anfänge deutschen Lebens in Oesterreich."


Traces of the Croat Population in the District Near
Pressburg [Bratislava]

The following towns and villages have possessed a Croat population, either predominant or at least considerable:

Maiersdorf, Zverndorf, Pangort, Marchegg, Bratisey, Senfeld, Hlohovac, Siebenbrunn, Horisey, Stradorf, Poturno, Limisdorf, Andlesdorf (Razvitnjak), Gustatin, Petronel, Rohrau (Trstnik), Wildungsmauer, Kaglor, Piselsdorf, Mannersdorf, Au (Cindrov), Hof (Cimov), Landeck, Kroatisch Wagram (Ogran hrvatski), Frama, Fuchspichl (Fukspil), Ort, Bratstatin, Lower Siebensbrunn, Kroatisch Haslern (Hazlor hrvatski).

Besides the whole district round Eisenstadt, Oedenburg, and the Neusiedler See.


Musicians born in Pressburg [Bratislava] and its Neighbourhood.

  • = Probably Croatian

  • Hans Neusiedler, Lutenist, born 1563 near Neusiedler See.
  • Viet Bach, grandfather of J.S. Bach, born about 1580 at Pressburg.
  • Andreas Ruach, organist and composer, born about 1590 at Pottendorf.
  • Samuel Bockshorn (Capricornus), conductor, born in 1629 at Pressburg.
  • Joseph Haydn, born in 1732 at Rohrau.
  • Michael Hadyn, born in 1737 at Rohrau.
  • Johann Evangelist Haydn, born in 1743 at Rohrau.
  • Matthias Kamiensky (Kamenar), composer, born in 1734 at Oedenburg.
  • Theodor Lotz, musical instrument maker, born about 1740 at Pressburg.
  • Anton Zimmermann, composer, born in 1750 at Pressburg.
  • N. Hadrava, Lutenist, born in 1750 near Pressburg,
  • G. Druschetzky (Druzechi), composer, born about 1760 at Pressburg. (?)
  • Jacob Hurtl, oboe-player in the Esterhazy orchestra, born about 1760 at Eisenstadt.
  • Joseph Weigel (Weigl), composer, born in 1706 at Eisenstadt.
  • Ivan Bihari, violinist and composer, born in 1769 at Great Abony.
  • Stephan Koch, musical instrument maker, born in 1772 at Vesprim.
  • Ivan Fuss, composer, born in 1777 at Tolnau.
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel, born in 1778 at Pressburg.
  • Joseph Blahak, composer, born in 1779 at Raggersdorf.
  • Ivan Fuchs, Kapellmeister to Prince Esterhazy, born in 1780 at Eisenstadt.
  • Peter Lichtenthal, composer, born in 1780 at Pressburg.
  • Count Thadeus Amadé, pianist, born in 1783 at Pressburg.
  • Adolf Müller, composer, born in 1802 at Tolnau.
  • Joseph Wurda, singer, born in 1807 at Gjur (Raab).
  • Friedrich Fischer, singer, born in 1809 at Pressburg.
  • Franz Liszt, Born in 1811 at Raiding (Rudnik).
    The case of Liszt is somewhat apart from the others. The earlist form of his name appears to be Listhius, which Dr. Kuhac claims with some plausibility as Slavonic (nase gore list). But as early as 1747 the Magyarised form appears in the person of Canon Johann Liszt; and there can be little doubt that by the time of the great pianist's birth the family had become thoroughly Hungarian. There are, of course, many Hungarian families in which Magyar and Slavonic strains are united, and in the music of Liszt the Magyar element unquestionably predominates.
  • Michael Hauser, violinist, born in 1822 at Pressburg.
  • Ferdinand Kletzer, violoncellist, born in 1830 at Oedenburg. (?)
  • Joseph Joachim, born in 1831 at Kitsee.
  • Carl Goldmark, born in 1832 at Keszthelyn.
  • Ludwing Straus, born in 1845 at Pressburg.
  • Leopold Auer, violinist, born in 1845 at Vesprim.
  • Charlotte Debner, violinist, born in 1846 at Kitsee.


Names of Croatian Musicians Translated or

(a) Translated (equivalent of meaning: conjectural).

Current Name

  1. Neusiedler
  2. Bockshorn
  3. Bach
  4. Rauch
  5. Zimmermann
  6. Koch
  7. Fuss
  8. Hummel
  9. Fuchs
  10. Müller
  11. Fischer

Croatian Name

  1. Novosel
  2. Rozic
  3. Potocic or Potocnjak
  4. Dimic or Dimovic
  5. Tesar or Tesarevic
  6. Kuhac, Kuhacevic, or Kuharevic
  7. Nogic, or Nogavac
  8. Bumbarevic or Cemliak
  9. Lissa, Lisica, or Lisinski
  10. Mlinar or Mlinaric
  11. Ribar or Ribaric

(b) Corrupted (Adaptation of sound: reasonably certain).

Current Name

  1. Bulgarelli
  2. Bona
  3. Brusa
  4. Draghi
  5. Dragonetti
  6. Ferrich
  7. Gerlo
  8. Giornovichi
  9. Jelich or Jael
  10. Kresnik
  11. Henkel
  12. Calnide
  13. Kannabich
  14. Cola
  15. Muzin
  16. Mazoleni
  17. Mazzuranna
  18. Nachich or Nanchini
  19. Pollini
  20. Desplanes
  21. Pisaroni
  22. Zappa
  23. Scalichius
  24. Smetenich
  25. Tamparizza
  26. Thern
  27. Tartini
  28. Tuscan
  29. Visochi
  30. Zingarelli
  31. Zagitz
  32. Zuchetto
  33. Schuppanzigh

Croatian Name

  1. Bugarin
  2. Bunic
  3. Brusic
  4. Dragi
  5. Draganic
  6. Feric
  7. Grlo
  8. Jarnovic
  9. Jelic
  10. Gresnik
  11. Kengelovic
  12. Kalin
  13. Kanabic
  14. Kola
  15. Muzina
  16. Mazolic
  17. Masuranic
  18. Nakic
  19. Polic
  20. Polinar
  21. Pisar
  22. Sapa
  23. Skalic
  24. Smetenic
  25. Tamparica
  26. Trn
  27. Trtic
  28. Tuskan
  29. Visoki
  30. Ciganin
  31. Zaic
  32. Zuketic
  33. Zupancic


Variants of the name "Haydn" within the Limits
of the Composer's Family

  1. Haiden:
    • Register of Caspar Heiden's marriage, Hainburg, 1657.
    • Register of Joseph Haiden's death, Hainburg, April 19, 1715.
    • Register of the composer's baptism, Rohrau, April 1, 1732 (the father's name is given as Mathias Haiden)
    • Register of his mother's death, Rohrau, February 25, 1754.
  2. Hayden:
    • Register of Thomas Hayden's death, Hainburg, September 4, 1701, and of his widow's re-marriage, Hainburg, January 8, 1702.
    • Register of the composer's marriage, (St. Stephen's, Vienna, November 26, 1760).
    • The composer's signature (quittance for salary) Eisenstadt, January, 1762
    • Register of Mathias Hayden's death, Rohrau, September 14, 1763, and the monument to him now in Rohrau Churchyard.
    • Frequent concert notices, both of the composer and his brother Michael, the latter at Salzburg.
    • Habitual signature for many years of Michael Hayden.
    • The composer's monument in Count Harrach's Park at Rohrau.
  3. Haidin:
    • The name of composer's mother is so given on the monument in Rohrau Churchyard.
  4. Heyden:
    • The composer's name is so written throughout the "Convention und Verhaltungs-Norma" under which he held his appointment at Eisenstadt.
  5. Heiden:
    • Register of Thomas Heiden's baptism, Hainburg, 1655.
  6. Hayd'n:
    • Occasionally, though rarely, in concert programmes.
  7. Haydin:
    • The same.
  8. Haydn:
    • Register of Mathias Haydn's baptism, Hainburg, January 31, 1609.
    • The composer's habitual signature after February, 1762.
    • Register of his wife's death, Baden, March 20, 1800. Diploma of the Freedom of Vienna, April 1, 1804.
    • Many notices and concert programmes.
    • Monumnet to the composer in the Einsiedeln Church at Eisenstadt.
  9. Haidn:
    • Register of Barbara Haidn's baptism, Hainburg, January 2, 1658.
    • Frequent notices and concert programmes.
    • Letter of Beethoven, 1822.
  10. Hayrn:
    • Register of Thomas Hayrn's marriage, Hainburg, November 23, 1687 - his father's name is also given as Caspar Hayrn; see items (1), (2), and (3).
  11. Hein:
    • Register of Mathias Hein's marriage, Rohrau, November 24, 1728.
  12. Haden:
    • Occasional variants in registers and documents at Heinburg, Rohrau, etc, noted by Dr. Pohl (also below).
  13. Hädn:
  14. Hayn:
  15. Hain:
  16. Heim:
Back to Sir W.H. Hadow: A Croatian Composer; notes towards the study of Joseph Haydn